Visual arts. Culture of Finland. The culture of Finland combines indigenous heritage, as represented for example by the country's Uralic national language Finnish and the sauna, with common Nordic, Russian and European culture.
Because of its history and geographic location Finland has been influenced by the adjacent areas, various Finnic and Baltic peoples as well as the former dominant powers of Sweden and Russia. Finnish culture may be seen to build upon the relatively ascetic environmental realities, traditional livelihoods and a heritage of egalitarianism, (see e.g.: Everyman's right and universal suffrage) and the traditionally widespread ideal of self-sufficiency (see, e.g.: the predominant rural life but also more modern manifestations of such a life in the summer cottage). There are still cultural differences between Finland's regions, especially minor differences in accents and vocabulary. Historical main aspects Education in Finland. Education in Finland is a system with no tuition fees and with fully subsidised meals served to full-time students.
The present Finnish education system consists of daycare programs (for babies and toddlers) and a one-year "pre-school" (or kindergarten for six-year-olds); a nine-year compulsory basic comprehensive school (starting at age seven and ending at the age of fifteen); post-compulsory secondary general academic and vocational education; higher education (University and University of Applied Sciences); and adult (lifelong, continuing) education. After their nine-year basic education in a comprehensive school, students at the age of 16 may choose to continue their secondary education in either an academic track (lukio) or a vocational track (ammattikoulu), both of which usually take three years.
Tertiary education is divided into university and polytechnic (ammattikorkeakoulu, also known as university of applied sciences) systems. List of universities in Finland. Institutions of higher education are designated universities by Finnish legislation, most importantly, the University Act (Yliopistolaki/Universitetslag, 558/2009). According to the decree on the System of the degrees of higher education (Asetus korkeakoulututkintojen järjestelmästä/Förordning om högskolornas examenssystem, 464/1998), only these universities have the right to confer the degrees in the categories alempi korkeakoulututkinto/lägre högskoleexamen (Bachelor's degree) and ylempi korkeakoulututkinto/högre högskoleexamen (Master's degree) and doctoral degrees.
Education and science. Finnish literature. Finnish literature refers to literature written in Finland.
Earliest texts in Finland were written in Swedish or Latin during the Finnish Middle Age (ca. 1200 - 1523). Finnish-language literature was slowly developing from the 16th century onwards. First artistic heyday of the Finnish literature was the mid-19th century era of National Romanticism. Literature. Television.
Cinema of Finland. The Finnish cinema has a long history, with first public screenings starting almost as early as modern motion picture technology was invented (the first screening in the world was in 1895, in Finland in 1896).
It took over a decade before the first Finnish film was produced and screened in 1907. After these first steps of Finnish cinema, the progress was very slow. After 1907 there were two periods (1909–1911 and 1917–1918) when no Finnish films were produced. This was partly caused by the political situation, as Finland held a status as an autonomic part of Russia and was thus influenced by the worldwide political situation. In 1917 Finland became an independent country and in 1918 there was a civil war. History 1896–1920: Before Independence List of Finnish films. List of Finnish films From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A list of films produced in Finland ordered by year of release.
For an alphabetical list of Finnish films see Category:Finnish films Contents. Media and communication. Telecommunications in Finland. Finland has excellent communications, and is considered one of the most advanced information societies in the world. Telephones Telephones – main lines in use: 2.368 million (2004) Telephones – mobile cellular: 4.988 million (2004) Telephone system: General Assessment: Modern system with excellent service.
Domestic: Digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs. International: Country code – 358; 2 submarine cable (Finland-Estonia and Finland-Sweden Connection); satellite earth stations – access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note – Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). List of newspapers in Finland. The number of national daily newspapers in Finland was 64 in 1950, whereas it was 56 in 1965. Below is a list of newspapers in Finland with their respective cities of publication: Finnish-language newspapers
Television in Finland. Television was introduced in Finland in 1957.
Color television started in 1969. Prior to 1986, Yle monopolized the Finnish television. All terrestrial analogue stations stopped broadcasting on 1 September 2007 after introducing digital television; cable providers were allowed to continue analog broadcasting in their networks until 1 March 2008. Digital terrestrial Digital terrestrial television was launched on 21 August 2001.
On the digital platform, subtitling isn't a part of the video stream in YLE's programming, but is delivered as a separate data stream, which allows subtitling in multiple languages and the option to remove subtitles. Cable Analogue cable television were switched off in Finland on 1 March 2008, but digital cable television is widespread all over the country and its infrastructure used for cable internet services.
Finnish cuisine. Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice.
Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (eggbutter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating. Finnish foods often use wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as blueberries, lingonberries, cloudberries, and sea buckthorn). Milk and its derivatives like buttermilk are commonly used as food, drink or in various recipes. Various turnips were common in traditional cooking, but were replaced with the potato after its introduction in the 18th century. Characteristics In former times, the country's harsh climate meant that fresh fruit and vegetables were largely unavailable for nine months of the year, leading to a heavy reliance on staple tubers (initially turnip, later potato), dark rye bread and fermented dairy products, occasionally enlivened with preserved fish and meat. Finnish cuisine is very similar to Swedish cuisine. Cuisine. Public holidays in Finland. In addition to this all Sundays are official holidays but they are not as important as the special holidays.
The names of the Sundays follow the liturgical calendar and they can be categorized as Christian holidays. When, in the late 1960s, the standard working week in Finland was reduced to 40 hours by an act of Parliament, it also meant that all Saturdays became a sort of de facto public holidays, though not official ones. Easter Sunday and Pentecost are Sundays that form part of a main holiday and they are preceded by a kind of special Saturdays. Tradition Christmas Eve and Midsummer Eve might very well be the single most important holidays during the entire year for Finns.
The Finnish calendar also provides for special flag days. Finland has an official National Day, December 6. Public holidays. Flag days in Finland. Various days are referred to as Flag days in Finland. Legal enforcement By law, the Finnish flag must be flown from public buildings on the following days: February 28, day of Kalevala; the occasion is also celebrated as the Day of Finnish cultureMay 1, Vappu, the Day of Finnish LabourSecond Sunday in May, Mother's DayJune 4, birthday of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Marshal of Finland; the occasion is also celebrated as the Flag Day of the Finnish Defence ForcesSaturday between June 20 and 26 June, Midsummer Day; the occasion is also celebrated as the Day of the Finnish Flag.
Sport in Finland. Sport is considered a national pastime in Finland and many Finns visit different sporting events regularly. Pesäpallo is the national sport of Finland, although the most popular forms of sport in terms of television viewers and media coverage are ice-hockey and Formula One. In spectator attendance, harness racing comes right after ice hockey in popularity. The most popular recreational sports and activities include floorball, nordic walking, running and skiing. The Finnish team won the Bandy World Championship 2004, their first and so far only victory. They almost always[clarification needed] take a medal. Football in Finland. History Domestic club competitions The highest division in Finnish football is the Finnish Premier Division, or Veikkausliiga, comprising 12 professional football teams.
Below that is a league system maintained by the Finnish Football Association, with Ykkönen, or First Division, as the second highest division, with 10 teams. Beneath Ykkönen, each division is divided into 'groups' based on the location of the clubs. For instance, the Second Division, or Kakkonen, has 40 teams divided into four regional groups, each of 10 teams. Sports.