Energy subsidies - Wikipedia. Energy subsidies are measures that keep prices for consumers below market levels or for producers above market levels, or reduce costs for consumers and producers. Energy subsidies may be direct cash transfers to producers, consumers, or related bodies, as well as indirect support mechanisms, such as tax exemptions and rebates, price controls, trade restrictions, and limits on market access.
They may also include energy conservation subsidies. The development of today's major modern energy industries have all relied on substantial subsidy support. Global fossil fuel subsidies represented 6.5% of global GDP in 2015. The elimination of these subsidies is widely seen as one of the most effective ways of reducing global carbon emissions. Overview Main arguments for energy subsidies are: Main arguments against energy subsidies are: Denialism - Wikipedia. In the psychology of human behavior, denialism is a person's choice to deny reality, as a way to avoid a psychologically uncomfortable truth.
Denialism is an essentially irrational action that withholds the validation of an historical experience or event, by the person refusing to accept an empirically verifiable reality. In the sciences, denialism is the rejection of basic facts and concepts that are undisputed, well-supported parts of the scientific consensus on a subject, in favor of radical and controversial ideas. How to Disagree: Amin Maalouf on the Key to Intelligent Dissent and Effective Criticism.
Long before philosopher Daniel Dennett laid out his four rules for criticizing with kindness, the great Lebanese-born French writer Amin Maalouf addressed the key to intelligent dissent and effective criticism in a passage from In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong (public library) — his altogether magnificent exploration of conflict and how we inhabit our selves.
Maalouf, translated here by Barbara Bray, reflects on what his unusual composite identity — born in Lebanon to Christian parents and raised with Arabic as his mother tongue, he emigrated to France in his twenties — taught him about the right to criticize the Other: The key word is reciprocity. If I try to belong to my country of adoption, if I now regard it as my own country and consider it part of me and myself part of it, and if I act accordingly, then I have the right to criticize every aspect of it. The right to criticize someone else has to be won, deserved. Introduction to 10 Signs That Study Is Bogus. One day you decide to try a new brand of chewing gum, but a short time after popping it in your mouth you break out in hives.
In the emergency room the doctor tells you that blood tests reveal an allergy to some ingredient in the new chewing gum.
Conspiracy. Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs. Welcome to “Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs,” the only comprehensive website on the famous Reagan-era government scandal, which stemmed from the U.S. government’s policies toward two seemingly unrelated countries, Nicaragua and Iran.
Common Mythconceptions - World's Most Contagious Falsehoods. Afghanistan War. Benghazi. Economy. Education. Globalization. Healthcare. Iraq war. Natural disasters. Science and/vs Religion.
Terrorism. United States politics. US Media. 40 maps that explain the world 2013. 40 more maps that explain the world 2014. Maps seemed to be everywhere in 2013, a trend I like to think we encouraged along with August's 40 maps that explain the world.
Maps can be a remarkably powerful tool for understanding the world and how it works, but they show only what you ask them to. You might consider this, then, a collection of maps meant to inspire your inner map nerd. How myths and tabloids feed on anomalies in science. UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH: What do we actually mean by research and how does it help inform our understanding of things?
What if research throws up a result that calls for a new way of thinking? Three Charts to Email to Your Right-Wing Brother-In-Law. Solution: Here are three "reality-based" charts to send to him.
These charts show what actually happened. Spending Government spending increased dramatically under President Bush. It has not increased much under President Obama. Why DO they hate us? Here are 7 Pretty Good Reasons. - History Buff. The tragic events that transpired in Paris this past month are inexcusable.
The terrorist attacks that took place on September 11th were horrendous and killed thousands of innocent lives. In 1998, the US Embassy in Nairobi and the US Embassy in Dar es Salaam killed scores of locals who had nothing to do with the United States. In Madrid in 2004, terrorists detonated a bomb in the city’s metro system killing 191. Groups collectively called Muslim extremists/Muslim fundamentalists are given credit for these acts. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, IPA /ˈaɪsəl/), alternatively translated the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS, /ˈaɪsɨs/), is a Salafi jihadist militant group that adheres to an Islamic fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam. Derived from its Arabic name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام), the group is also known under the acronym Da'ish or Daesh (داعش, IPA: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]). Name Historical names The group has had various names since being founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (lit.
"The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad"). When in October 2004, al-Zarqawi swore loyalty to Osama bin Laden, he renamed the group again to Tanẓīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn (lit. Current name History Foundation, 1999–2006 As Islamic State of Iraq, 2006–13 Syrian Civil War As Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, 2013–14. War Veteran Shares True Feelings About Muslims. In our daily lives, it’s so easy to take an insult personally and hold a grudge against a certain someone for a period of time. We’re only human, and forgiveness can be more difficult than we imagine sometimes. That being said, we could all learn a lesson from army veteran Chris Herbert. It seems that everywhere you turn these days, anti-Muslim sentiment plagues people’s thoughts, words, and social media posts, from the most famous politicians to the many workers and neighbors around us, and even people that have no personal experience with people who practice Islam are quick to make misinformed decisions based on the rumors and lies they’ve read on the internet or heard on the TV.