Conceptual framework. Overview The use of the term conceptual framework crosses both scale (large and small theories)  and contexts (social science, marketing, applied science, art  etc.).
Its explicit definition and application can therefore vary. Conceptual frameworks are particularly useful as organizing devices in empirical research. One set of scholars has applied the notion of conceptual framework to deductive, empirical research at the micro- or individual study level. They employ American football plays as a useful metaphor to clarify the meaning of conceptual framework (used in the context of a deductive empirical study). Likewise, conceptual frameworks are abstract representations, connected to the research project's goal that direct the collection and analysis of data (on the plane of observation – the ground). Types of conceptual frameworks Note that Shields and Rangarajan (2013) do not claim that the above are the only framework-purpose pairing. Overview.
Abstract and concrete. In philosophy Abstract objects have often garnered the interest of philosophers because they raise problems for popular theories.
In ontology, abstract objects are considered problematic for physicalism and some forms of naturalism. Historically, the most important ontological dispute about abstract objects has been the problem of universals. In epistemology, abstract objects are considered problematic for empiricism. If abstracta lack causal powers or spatial location, how do we know about them? Abstract objects and causality Another popular proposal for drawing the abstract-concrete distinction contends that an object is abstract if it lacks any causal powers. Concrete and abstract thinking Jean Piaget uses the terms "concrete" and "formal" to describe the different types of learning.
Action research. Action research is either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems.
There are two types of action research: participatory action research and practical action research. Denscombe (2010, p. 6) writes that an action research strategy's purpose is to solve a particular problem and to produce guidelines for best practice. Action research involves actively participating in a change situation, often via an existing organization, whilst simultaneously conducting research. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. Analogy. Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers.
The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notably in cognitive science. Concept. A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing concepts.
The concept reifies all of its actual or potential instances whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are treated in many if not most disciplines whether explicitly such as in psychology, philosophy, etc. or implicitly such as in mathematics, physics, etc. Conceptual model. A conceptual model is a model made of the composition of concepts, which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Some models are physical objects; for example, a toy model which may be assembled, and may be made to work like the object it represents. The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models which are formed after a conceptualization (generalization) process in the mind. Conceptual models represent human intentions or semantics[dubious ]. Conceptualization from observation of physical existence and conceptual modeling are the necessary means that humans employ to think and solve problems. Concepts are used to convey semantics during natural language based communication.
Conceptual system. Overview A conceptual system is a conceptual model.
Such systems may be related to any topic from formal science to individual imagination. Inquiry. An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.
A theory of inquiry is an account of the various types of inquiry and a treatment of the ways that each type of inquiry achieves its aim. Classical sources Deduction When three terms are so related to one another that the last is wholly contained in the middle and the middle is wholly contained in or excluded from the first, the extremes must admit of perfect syllogism. Mindset. A mindset can also be seen as incident of a person's Weltanschauung or philosophy of life.
For example there has been quite some interest in the typical mindset of an entrepreneur. Mindsets in politics A well-known[by whom?] Example is the "Cold War mindset" prevalent in both the U.S. and USSR, which included absolute trust in two-player game theory, in the integrity of command chain, in control of nuclear materials, and in the mutual assured destruction of both in the case of war.  Although most consider that this mindset usefully served to prevent an attack by either country, the assumptions underlying deterrence theory have made assessments of the efficacy of the Cold War mindset a matter of some controversy.
Ontology. Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality.
Paradigm. In science and philosophy, a paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field. Etymology Paradigm comes from Greek παράδειγμα (paradeigma), "pattern, example, sample" from the verb παραδείκνυμι (paradeiknumi), "exhibit, represent, expose" and that from παρά (para), "beside, beyond" and δείκνυμι (deiknumi), "to show, to point out". In rhetoric, paradeigma is known as a type of proof. The purpose of paradeigma is to provide an audience with an illustration of similar occurrences. This illustration is not meant to take the audience to a conclusion, however it is used to help guide them there. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy attributes the following description of the term to Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: