background preloader

Clinical significance and diseases of the Heart

Facebook Twitter

Being such a complex organ the heart is prone to several cardiovascular diseases some becoming more prevalent with ageing.[32] Heart disease is a major cause of death, accounting for an average of 30% of all deaths in 2008, globally.[9] This rate varies from a lower 28% to a high 40% in high-income countries.

Cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest, also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to failure of the heart to contract effectively or at all.[1] Medical personnel may refer to an unexpected cardiac arrest as a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).

Cardiac arrest

A cardiac arrest is different from (but may be caused by) a heart attack, where blood flow to the muscle of the heart is impaired.[2] It is different from congestive heart failure, where circulation is substandard, but the heart is still pumping sufficient blood to sustain life. Arrested blood circulation prevents delivery of oxygen and glucose to the body. Lack of oxygen and glucose to the brain causes loss of consciousness, which then results in abnormal or absent breathing. Brain injury is likely to happen if cardiac arrest goes untreated for more than five minutes.[3][4][5] For the best chance of survival and neurological recovery, immediate and decisive treatment is imperative.[6] Classification[edit] Hs Ts. Cardiac tamponade. Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is an acute type of pericardial effusion in which fluid, pus, blood, clots, or gas[1] accumulates in the pericardium (the sac in which the heart is enclosed), resulting in slow or rapid compression of the heart.

Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart muscle which occurs when the pericardial space fills up with fluid faster than the pericardial sac can stretch. If the amount of fluid increases slowly (such as in hypothyroidism) the pericardial sac can expand to contain a liter or more of fluid prior to tamponade occurring. If the fluid effusion occurs rapidly (as may occur after trauma or myocardial rupture) as little as 100 ml can cause tamponade.[2] Causes of increased pericardial effusion include hypothyroidism, physical trauma (either penetrating trauma involving the pericardium or blunt chest trauma), pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium), iatrogenic trauma (during an invasive procedure), and myocardial rupture.

Cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (also called heart disease) is a class of diseases that involve the heart, the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) or both.[1] Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease.[2] The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse but atherosclerosis and hypertension are the most common.

Cardiovascular disease

In addition, with aging come a number of physiological and morphological changes that alter cardiovascular function and lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in healthy asymptomatic individuals.[3] Types Disability-adjusted life year for inflammatory heart diseases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[8] no data less than 70 more than 770 Risk factors Age Calcified heart of an older woman with cardiomegaly. Multiple explanations have been proposed to explain why age increases the risk of cardiovascular/heart diseases. Sex Diet. Carditis. Carditis is the inflammation of the heart[1] or its surroundings.


It is usually studied and treated by specifying it as: Electrocardiography. "EKG" redirects here.


For the musical album, see E·K·G. An ECG is used to measure the heart’s electrical conduction system.[4] It picks up electrical impulses generated by the polarization and depolarization of cardiac tissue and translates into a waveform. The waveform is then used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.

Most ECGs are performed for diagnostic or research purposes on human hearts, but may also be performed on animals, usually for diagnosis of heart abnormalities or research. Medical uses[edit] Twelve-lead ECG of a 26-year-old male with an incomplete RBBB General symptoms indicating use of electrocardiography include: It is also used to assess patients with systemic disease, as well as monitoring during anesthesia and critically ill patients.[5]

Heart failure. Heart murmur. Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow across the heart valve that is sufficient to produce audible noise.

Heart murmur

Most murmurs can only be heard with the assistance of a stethoscope ("or auscultation"). A functional murmur or "physiologic murmur" is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself. Functional murmurs are benign (an "innocent murmur").[1] Ischemia. Signs and symptoms[edit] Clinical manifestations of acute limb ischemia (which can be summarized as the "six P's") include pain, pallor, pulseless, paresthesia, paralysis, and poikilothermia.[5] Cardiac ischemia[edit] Cardiac ischemia may be asymptomatic or may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris.