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Clinical Psychology

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Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways.


Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. History of psychotherapy. Many 18th-century treatments for psychological distress were based on pseudo-scientific ideas, such as phrenology .

History of psychotherapy

Although modern, scientific psychology is often dated at the 1879 opening of the first psychological clinic by Wilhelm Wundt , attempts to create methods for assessing and treating mental distress existed long before. Psychological evaluation. A psychological evaluation (in the vernacular, psych eval ) or mental examination is an examination into a person's mental health by a mental health professional such as a psychologist .

Psychological evaluation

A psychological evaluation may result in a diagnosis [ dubious ] of a mental illness . It is the mental equivalent of physical examination . Methodology [ edit ] Psychological assessment may come in two forms: formal and informal. Formal assessment involves the use of tools such as questionnaires, checklists and rating scales, while in informal assessment the interview/evaluation usually lacks such structure or organization. [ 1 ] The psychologist or related licensed professional will sometimes start by asking questions of the person being evaluated, but not always. Situations requiring psychological evaluations [ edit ] Psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology , the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension. [ 1 ] In this way, it is similar to psychoanalysis .

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

It also relies on the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist more than other forms of depth psychology. Humanistic psychology. Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.

Humanistic psychology

F. Skinner's behaviorism.[1] With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities, and creativity. It helps the patient gain the belief that all people are inherently good.[2] It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential. It encourages viewing ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche. Behaviour therapy.

Behavior therapy is a broad term referring to psychotherapy, behavior analytical, or a combination of the two therapies.

Behaviour therapy

In its broadest sense, the methods focus on either just behaviors or in combination with thoughts and feelings that might be causing them. Those who practice behavior therapy tend to look more at specific, learned behaviors and how the environment has an impact on those behaviors. Those who practice behavior therapy are called behaviorists.[1] They tend to look for treatment outcomes that are objectively measurable.[2] Behavior therapy does not involve one specific method but it has a wide range of techniques that can be used to treat a person’s psychological problems.[3] Behavior therapy breaks down into three disciplines: applied behavior analysis (ABA), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and social learning theory. History[edit] The first use of the term behavior modification appears to have been by Edward Thorndike in 1911. Cognitive behavioral therapy. CBT has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, tic, and psychotic disorders.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments.[3] However, other researchers have questioned the validity of such claims to superiority over other treatments.[4][5]

Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology. Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology refers to the influence of Eastern philosophies on the practice of clinical psychology based on the idea that East and West are false dichotomies.

Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology

Travel and trade along the Silk Road brought ancient texts and mind practices deep into the West. Vedic psychology dates back 5000 years and forms the core of mental health counselling in the Ayurvedic medical tradition. The knowledge that enlightened Siddhartha Gautama was the self-management of mental suffering through mindfulness awareness practices. Humane interpersonal care of the mentally disturbed was practiced in the Middle East in the Middle Ages, and later in the West. [ 1 ] Many of the founders of clinical psychology were influenced by these ancient texts as translations began to reach Europe during the 19th century. Applied psychology. Family therapy. Family therapy , also referred to as couple and family therapy , marriage and family therapy , family systems therapy , and family counseling , is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

Family therapy

It tends to view change in terms of the systems of interaction between family members. It emphasizes family relationships as an important factor in psychological health. Clinical psychology.