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New Form Of Atomic Nuclei Just Confirmed, And it Suggests Time Travel is Impossible. In Brief A group of scientists confirmed that there is a pear-shaped nucleus.

New Form Of Atomic Nuclei Just Confirmed, And it Suggests Time Travel is Impossible

Not only does this violate some laws in physics, but also suggests that time travel is not possible. Pear-shaped A new form of atomic nuclei has been confirmed by scientists in a recent study published in the journal Physical Review Letters. The pear-shaped, asymmetrical nuclei, first observed in 2013 by researchers from CERN in the isotope Radium-224, is also present in the isotope Barium-144. This is a monumental importance because most fundamental theories in physics are based on symmetry.

Until recently, there were three shapes of nuclei — spherical, discus, and rugby ball. In the end, this could help us understand why our universe is the way that it is. No time travel? This uneven distribution of mass and charge in the nuclei causes the isotope to ‘point’ in a certain direction in spacetime, and the team suggests that this could explain why time seems to to only go forward and not backward. Modelling molecular magnets. The complete magnetic properties of the prototype molecular magnet Mn12 have been modelled, for the first time, by an international team of researchers.

Modelling molecular magnets

The calculations will be crucial for developing real-world devices from the material, as well as to study fundamental nanoscale quantum-phenomena such as magnetic tunnelling. Single-molecule magnets, such as Mn12, Fe8, Mn4 and V15, are natural ensembles of identical, weakly interacting magnetic nanoparticles that can switch their magnetization between two states, from "spin up" to "spin down" for example. At low temperatures, the magnetic state of the molecule persists even in the absence of a magnetic field. Such a "memory effect" could be exploited to make high-density information storage devices for computing applications and in molecular electronics in general.

No 'adjustable parameters' Interactions are important. Elementary particle. In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.[1] Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.[1] A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle.

Elementary particle

Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning "indivisible" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.[1][2] Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. Overview[edit] Main article: Standard Model.

Atom. Atomic orbital. The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz.

Atomic orbital

The colors show the wave function phase. These are graphs of ψ(x, y, z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. To see the elongated shape of ψ(x, y, z)2 functions that show probability density more directly, see the graphs of d-orbitals below. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a unique set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ℓ, and m, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Any orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum number.

Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave mechanics model), a modern framework for visualizing the submicroscopic behavior of electrons in matter. Electron properties[edit] Wave-like properties: Particle-like properties: Types of orbitals[edit] History[edit] Proton. Neutron. The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle that has the symbol n or n0.


Neutrons have no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. With the exception of hydrogen-1, the nucleus of every atom consists of at least one or more of both protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as "nucleons". Since interacting protons have a mutual electromagnetic repulsion that is stronger than their attractive nuclear interaction, neutrons are often a necessary constituent within the atomic nucleus that allows a collection of protons to stay atomically bound (see diproton & neutron-proton ratio).[4] Neutrons bind with protons and one another in the nucleus via the nuclear force, effectively stabilizing it. Atomic nucleus. A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue).

Atomic nucleus

In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon has multiple locations at once. The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under Rutherford's direction. Build an Atom.