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Acquired disorders

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Paraphimosis. Paraphimosis (/ˌpærəfaɪˈmoʊsɨs/ or /ˌpærəfəˈmoʊsɨs/[1][2]) is an uncommon[3] medical condition where the foreskin becomes trapped behind the glans penis, and cannot be reduced (pulled back to its normal flaccid position covering the glans penis).

Paraphimosis

Peyronie's disease. Signs and symptoms[edit] Penis with Peyronie's disease Chronic Peyronie's Disease Penis from top.

Peyronie's disease

A certain degree of curvature of the penis is considered normal, as many men are born with this benign condition, commonly referred to as congenital curvature. The disease may cause pain; hardened, big, cord-like lesions (scar tissue known as "plaques"); or abnormal curvature of the penis when erect due to chronic inflammation of the tunica albuginea (CITA). Although the popular conception of Peyronie's Disease is that it always involves curvature of the penis, the scar tissue sometimes causes divots or indentations rather than curvature. Diagnosis[edit] A urologist can diagnose the disease and suggest treatment, although it is easily diagnosed by general practitioners or family doctors. Causes[edit] Thrombosis. Thrombosis (Greek: θρόμβωσις) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus; Greek: θρόμβος) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

Thrombosis

When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.[1][2] Thromboembolism is the combination of thrombosis and its main complication, embolism.

Pudendal nerve entrapment. Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE), also known as Alcock canal syndrome,[1][2] is an uncommon[1][3][4][5] source of chronic pain, in which the pudendal nerve (located in the pelvis) is entrapped or compressed.[6] Pain is positional and is worsened by sitting.

Pudendal nerve entrapment

Other symptoms include genital numbness, fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence. The term pudendal neuralgia (PN) is used interchangeably with "pudendal nerve entrapment", but a 2009 review study found both that "prevalence of PN is unknown and it seems to be a rare event" and that "there is no evidence to support equating the presence of this syndrome with a diagnosis of pudendal nerve entrapment," meaning that it is possible to have all the symptoms of pudendal nerve entrapment (otherwise known as pudendal neuralgia) based on the criteria specified at Nantes in 2006, without having an entrapped pudendal nerve.[7] Symptoms Tests and Imaging Similar to a tinel sign digital palpitation of the ischial spine may produce pain.

Causes. Penile fracture. Peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

Peripheral neuropathy

Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy), traumatic injury, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, or infection, or it may be inherited (present from birth).[1][2][3] In conventional medical usage, the word neuropathy (neuro-, "nervous system" and -pathy, "disease of")[4] without modifier usually means peripheral neuropathy. Erectile dysfunction. "Brewer's droop" redirects here.

Erectile dysfunction

For the band, see Brewers Droop. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.[1] A penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis. The process is often initiated as a result of sexual arousal, when signals are transmitted from the brain to nerves in the penis. The most important organic causes are cardiovascular disease and diabetes, neurological problems (for example, trauma from prostatectomy surgery), hormonal insufficiencies (hypogonadism) and drug side effects. Psychological impotence is where erection or penetration fails due to thoughts or feelings (psychological reasons) rather than physical impossibility; this is somewhat less frequent but can often be helped. Signs and symptoms Causes Pathophysiology Diagnosis Duplex ultrasound Penile nerves function Treatment Pumps.

Priapism. Priapism (/ˈpraɪəpɪzəm/[1][2]) is a potentially painful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state, despite the absence of both physical and psychological stimulation, within four hours.

Priapism

Priapism is considered a medical emergency, which should receive proper treatment by a qualified medical practitioner. There are two types of priapism: low-flow and high-flow; 80% to 90% of clinically presented priapisms are low flow disorders.[3] Low-flow involves the blood not adequately returning to the body from the penis. High-flow involves a short-circuit of the vascular system partway along the penis.

Treatment is different for each type. Early treatment can be beneficial for a functional recovery. Not all sources give four hours as the guideline for priapism occurring: "The duration time of a normal erection before it is classifiable as priapism is still controversial. Lymphangiosclerosis. Lymphangiosclerosis is a hardened lymph vessel, although it can feel like a hardened, almost calcified or fibrous, vein.

Lymphangiosclerosis

It tends to not share the common blue tint with a vein however. Penile cancer. Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis.

Penile cancer

Around 95% of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Other types of penile cancer such as Merkel cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, melanoma and other are generally rare.[1] Prevalence[edit] However in the developing world penile cancer is much more common. For instance, in Paraguay, Uruguay, Uganda and Brazil the incidence is 4.2, 4.4, 2.8 and 1.5–3.7 per 100,000, respectively.[1][7] In some South American countries, Africa, and Asia, this cancer type constitutes up to 10% of malignant diseases in men.[1] The lowest incidence is in Israeli Jews—0.1 per 100,000.

The lifetime risk has been estimated as 1 in 1,437 in the United States and 1 in 1,694 in Denmark.[8]