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People. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Aristotle. First published Thu Sep 25, 2008 Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) numbers among the greatest philosophers of all time.
Judged solely in terms of his philosophical influence, only Plato is his peer: Aristotle's works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and even today continue to be studied with keen, non-antiquarian interest. A prodigious researcher and writer, Aristotle left a great body of work, perhaps numbering as many as two-hundred treatises, from which approximately thirty-one survive. His extant writings span a wide range of disciplines, from logic, metaphysics and philosophy of mind, through ethics, political theory, aesthetics and rhetoric, and into such primarily non-philosophical fields as empirical biology, where he excelled at detailed plant and animal observation and taxonomy.
Because of its wide range and its remoteness in time, Aristotle's philosophy defies easy encapsulation. 1. 2. Organon Categories (Cat.) Aristotelianism. Aristotelianism (/ˌærɨstəˈtiːliənɨzəm/ ARR-i-stə-TEE-li-ə-niz-əm) is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school, and, later on, by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotle's writings. In the Islamic world, the works of Aristotle were translated into Arabic, and under philosophers such as Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy. Moses Maimonides adopted Aristotelianism from these Islamic scholars and based his famous Guide of the Perplexed on it. That became the basis of Jewish Scholastic Philosophy. Although some knowledge of Aristotle's logical works was known to western Europe, it wasn't until the Latin translations of the 12th century that the works of Aristotle and his Arabic commentators became widely available. History Ancient Greece Europe Plato. First published Sat Mar 20, 2004; substantive revision Wed Sep 11, 2013 Plato (429–347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy.
An Athenian citizen of high status, he displays in his works his absorption in the political events and intellectual movements of his time, but the questions he raises are so profound and the strategies he uses for tackling them so richly suggestive and provocative that educated readers of nearly every period have in some way been influenced by him, and in practically every age there have been philosophers who count themselves Platonists in some important respects. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied. 1.
Plato's central doctrines 2. 3. We are of course familiar with the dialogue form through our acquaintance with the literary genre of drama. 4. 5. 6. Free Will Debate: Who’s in Charge? by Michael Gazzaniga (review) I was almost four when it first occurred to me that no one else was missing legs.
Flooded by questions without words to articulate them, I connected images with explanations. Those first confusing moments unravel in my mind like an old film. It begins with me being nudged awake by a waxy moon spilling silver-white light through the window as I sucked my thumb. But it wasn’t my window. I grabbed the bars to pull myself up and thought, “Where am I?” Twenty-five years later, Aunt Gert would remind me of that day under the canopy of drying sheets when I picked up my cousin’s shoe and tried to put it on my own leg. “Is that a two-piece?” He started the engine, and I looked again at the house.