Khawarij. "Khariji" redirects here.
For the village in Iran, see Khariji, Iran. Kharijites (Collective Plural Arabic: الخارجية, translit.: al-Khārijiyyah; Multiple Plural Arabic: خوارج, translit.: Khawārij; Singular Arabic: خارجي, translit.: Khāriji; literally 'those who went out') were a sect in early Islam that initially supported the authority of Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law and cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, but then later rejected his leadership, after he agreed to arbitration with Mu'awiyah rather than combat to decide the succession to the Caliphate following the Battle of Siffin (657). A Khariji later assassinated Ali, and for hundreds of years the Khawarij were a source of insurrection against the Caliphate. They survive today in small numbers in more moderate forms. Their name come from the fact that they left or "seceded" from Ali's army.
Etymology History Origin In 657, Alī's forces met Muʿāwiyah's at the Battle of Siffin. Hadiths Islamic Sects, Schools, Branches & Movements. Imperial History of the Middle East. Islamic Golden Age.
Causes With a new, easier writing system and the introduction of paper, information was democratized to the extent that, probably for the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from simply writing and selling books. The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century CE, arriving in Spain (and then the rest of Europe) in the 10th century CE.
It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records. Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. It was from these countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen. Philosophy Ibn Rushd and Ibn Sina played a major role in saving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. Siege of Baghdad (1258) Hulagu had begun his campaign in Iran with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins, whose stronghold of Alamut his forces seized.
He then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Musta'sim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces and refused to surrender. Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing numerous atrocities and destroying the Abbasids' vast libraries, including the House of Wisdom. The Mongols executed Al-Musta'sim and massacred many residents of the city, which was left greatly depopulated. Baghdad had for centuries been the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, the third caliphate whose rulers were descendants of Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city.