List of common misconceptions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This incomplete list is not intended to be exhaustive. This list corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics. Each misconception and the corresponding facts have been discussed in published literature. Note that each entry is formatted as a correction; the misconceptions themselves are implied rather than stated. Arts and culture Food and cooking Roll-style Western sushi. Searing meat does not "seal in" moisture, and in fact may actually cause meat to lose moisture. Legislation and crime Literature The Harry Potter books, though they have broken children's book publishing records, have not led to an increase in reading among children or adults, nor slowed the ongoing overall decline in book purchases by Americans, and children who did read the Harry Potter books were not more likely to go on to read more outside of the fantasy and mystery genres. Music Religion Hebrew Bible Buddhism Christianity Islam Sports.
Appeal to nature. An appeal to nature is an argument or rhetorical tactic in which it is proposed that "a thing is good because it is 'natural', or bad because it is 'unnatural'". Forms General form of this type of argument: N is natural. Therefore, N is good or right. U is unnatural. Therefore, U is bad or wrong. In some contexts, the use of the terms of "nature" and "natural" can be vague, leading to unintended associations with other concepts. Julian Baggini explains that "[E]ven if we can agree that some things are natural and some are not, what follows from this? History The meaning and importance of various understandings and concepts of "nature" has been a persistent topic of discussion historically in both science and philosophy. In modern times, philosophers have challenged the notion that human beings' status as natural beings should determine or dictate their normative being.
Examples See also References External links Canary trap. A canary trap is a method for exposing an information leak by giving different versions of a sensitive document to each of several suspects and seeing which version gets leaked. Special attention is paid to the quality of the prose of the unique language, in the hopes that the suspect will repeat it verbatim in the leak, thereby identifying the version of the document. Each summary paragraph has six different versions, and the mixture of those paragraphs is unique to each numbered copy of the paper. There are over a thousand possible permutations, but only ninety-six numbered copies of the actual document. The reason the summary paragraphs are so lurid is to entice a reporter to quote them verbatim in the public media. If he quotes something from two or three of those paragraphs, we know which copy he saw and, therefore, who leaked it.
A refinement of this technique uses a thesaurus program to shuffle through synonyms, thus making every copy of the document unique. Barium meal test Oseberg ship. The Oseberg ship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) Detail from the Oseberg ship View from the front. The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway. Burial mound The Oseberg burial mound (Norwegian: Oseberghaugen ved Slagen from the Old Norse word haugr meaning kurgan mound or barrow) contained numerous grave goods and two female human skeletons.
Ship structure Human remains The skeletons of two women were found in the grave with the ship. Dendrochronological analysis of timbers in the grave chamber dates the burial to the autumn of 834. Although the high-ranking woman's identity is unknown, it has been suggested that she is Queen Åsa of the Yngling clan, mother of Halfdan the Black and grandmother of Harald Fairhair. According to Per Holck of Oslo University, the younger woman's mitochondrial haplogroup was discovered to be U7. Grave goods Alpher–Bethe–Gamow paper. In physical cosmology, the Alpher–Bethe–Gamow paper, or αβγ paper, was created by Ralph Alpher, then a physics PhD student, and his advisor George Gamow. The work, which would become the subject of Alpher's PhD dissertation, argued that the Big Bang would create hydrogen, helium and heavier elements in the correct proportions to explain their abundance in the early universe.
While the original theory neglected a number of processes important to the formation of heavy elements, subsequent developments showed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis is consistent with the observed constraints on all primordial elements. Formally titled "The Origin of Chemical Elements", it was published in the April 1948 issue of Physical Review. Bethe's name The αβγ paper with the figure referred to in the text After this, Bethe did work on big bang nucleosynthesis.
Alpher, at the time only a graduate student, was generally dismayed by the inclusion of Bethe's name on this paper. Notes References Lanchester's laws. Lanchester's laws are mathematical formulae for calculating the relative strengths of a predator/prey pair. This article is concerned with military forces. The Lanchester equations are differential equations describing the time dependence of two armies' strengths A and B as a function of time, with the function depending only on A and B. In 1916, during World War I, Frederick Lanchester devised a series of differential equations to demonstrate the power relationships between opposing forces.
Among these are what is known as Lanchester's Linear Law (for ancient combat) and Lanchester's Square Law (for modern combat with long-range weapons such as firearms). Lanchester's Linear Law For ancient combat, between phalanxes of soldiers with spears, say, one soldier could only ever fight exactly one other soldier at a time. The linear law also applies to unaimed fire into an enemy-occupied area. Lanchester's Square Law Description Example Equations dA/dt = -βB dB/dt = -αA.
Jerrycan. German containers for 20 litres of fuel. left: former container, right: Wehrmacht-Einheitskanister of 1941, manufacturer: Nirona A jerrycan (also written as jerry can or jerrican) was originally a robust fuel container made from pressed steel. It was designed in Germany in the 1930s for military use to hold 20 litres (5.3 U.S. gal) of fuel. The development of the jerrycan was a significant improvement on earlier designs, which required tools and funnels to use. Today similar designs are used for fuel and water containers, some of which are also produced in plastic. The designs usually emulate the original steel design and are still known as jerrycans.
Uses British fuel canisters used in April 1944 during training in England in preparation of the Allied landings in Normandy Jerrycans. Uses for the cans have expanded beyond the original intended use of carrying fuel. Regulations Current US regulations Current European regulations History German invention U 977. U 977 war ein deutsches U-Boot vom Typ VII C der Kriegsmarine. Es gehörte mit U 530 zu den beiden U-Booten, denen es im Jahr 1945 gelang, den Alliierten nach Kriegsende Richtung Südamerika zu entkommen.
Geschichte[Bearbeiten] Da die alten, erfahrenen Unteroffiziere fehlten, wurde für die verbliebene Mannschaft aus Matrosen und Unteroffizieren schon jedes Alarmtauchen zum Risiko. So kam es, dass der erste Wachoffizier bei einem Alarmtauchen vergaß, das Sehrohr einzuziehen. Weil die Drahtseile dem Druck in 100 Metern Tiefe nicht mehr standhielten, fiel das Periskop ungebremst durch seinen Schacht auf das Deck, wobei seine Prismen beschädigt wurden. Siehe auch[Bearbeiten] Literatur[Bearbeiten] Janusz Piekałkiewicz: Seekrieg 1939–1945. Weblinks[Bearbeiten] Ant mill. An ant mill is an observed phenomenon in which a group of army ants separated from the main foraging party lose the pheromone track and begin to follow one another, forming a continuously rotating circle. The ants will eventually die of exhaustion. This has been reproduced in laboratories and the behaviour has also been produced in ant colony simulations. This phenomenon is a side effect of the self-organizing structure of ant colonies.
Each ant follows the ant in front of it, and this will work until something goes wrong and an ant mill forms. An ant mill was first described by William Beebe in 1921 who observed a mill 1,200 feet (365 m) in circumference. It took each ant 2.5 hours to make one revolution. Similar phenomena have been noted in processionary caterpillars and fish. See also References External links
Predestination paradox. A predestination paradox (also called causal loop, causality loop, and, less frequently, closed loop or closed time loop) is a paradox of time travel that is often used as a convention in science fiction. It exists when a time traveler is caught in a loop of events that "predestines" or "predates" him or her to travel back in time. Because of the possibility of influencing the past while time traveling, one way of explaining why history does not change is by saying that whatever has happened must happen. This means either that time travelers attempts to alter the past in this model, intentionally or not, would only fulfill their role in creating history as we know it and not change it or that time-travelers' personal knowledge of history already includes their future travels in their own experience of the past (for the Novikov self-consistency principle).
In other words: time travelers are in the past, which requires that they were in the past before. Temporal causality loop Mikhail Devyatayev. Mikhail Petrovich Devyatayev (Russian: Михаил Петрович Девятаев; Moksha/Erzya: Михаил Петрович Девятаев; 8 July 1917 in Torbeyevo, Tambow Governorate, Russia (today Mordovia, Russia);– 24 November 2002, Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia) was a Soviet fighter pilot known for his incredible escape from a Nazi concentration camp on the island of Usedom, in the Baltic Sea. Early life and military career Mikhail was the thirteenth child born to the family of a Mordovian peasant. In 1938 he graduated from a School of River Navigation (Речной Техникум) and worked as the captain of a small ship on the Volga.
That same year he was conscripted into the Red Army and began education at a Chkalov Flying School, graduating in 1940. Devyataev was an early entrant of World War II, destroying his first Ju-87 on 24 June 1941 just two days after Germany attacked the Soviet Union. Capture and imprisonment Escape Postwar Devyataev was discharged from the army in November 1945. References List of songs containing the I-V-vi-IV progression. I-V-vi-IV pop-punk chord progression in C Play . vi-IV-I-V pop-punk chord progression in C Play .
See also Notes List of ineffective cancer treatments. List of common misconceptions. Coital cephalalgia. Also known as "sexual headaches", coital cephalalgia is a rare type of severe headache that occurs at the base of the skull before orgasm during sexual activity, including masturbation. A pressor response to exercise has been suggested as a mechanism. Presentation The pain usually moves from the base of the skull through the head towards the frontal lobes. Extremely severe and sharp pain behind the eyes is also a symptom. Coital cephalalgia can frequently occur in a timeframe that exertion headaches occur. Epidemiology It is most common for men to experience these headaches for the first time in their early 20s, or between the ages of 35-44; the reason for this is unclear. More prevalent in men, by a ratio of 3:1, these headaches appear in roughly 1% of the population, though it has been suggested that the prevalence may be higher, due to the embarrassment of presenting with the disorder, especially in cases where spontaneous remission occurs after a few days.
Treatment Sentinelese people. The Sentinelese (also Sentineli, Senteneli, Sentenelese, North Sentinel Islanders) are an indigenous people of the Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal. They inhabit North Sentinel Island, which lies westward off the southern tip of the Great Andaman archipelago. They are noted for resisting attempts at contact by outsiders.
The Sentinelese maintain an essentially hunter-gatherer society subsisting through hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants. There is no evidence of either agricultural practices or methods of producing fire. Their language remains unknown. The Sentinelese are a designated Scheduled Tribe. Population The precise population of the Sentinelese is not known. On previous visits, groups of some 20–40 individuals were encountered regularly. Characteristics No close contacts have been established, however, the author Heinrich Harrer described one man as being 1.6 m (5' 4") tall and apparently left handed. Culture Present situation
Ozymandias. A fair copy draft (c. 1817) of Shelley's "Ozymandias" in the collection of Oxford's Bodleian Library Ozymandias (in five syllables /ˌɒziˈmændiəs/ or four syllables /ˌɒziˈmændjəs/) is a sonnet written by the English romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822). First published in the 11 January 1818 issue of The Examiner in London, it was included the following year in Shelley's collection Rosalind and Helen, A Modern Eclogue; with Other Poems (1819) and after his death in a posthumous compilation of his poems published in 1826. Ozymandias is regarded as one of Shelley's most famous works and is frequently anthologised.
Writing and publication history Publication history Smith's poem Comparison of the two poems Analysis and interpretation Scansion "Ozymandias" is a sonnet, written in iambic pentameter, but with an atypical rhyme scheme when compared to other English-language sonnets, and without the characteristic octave-and-sestet structure.
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