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The (from Russian [ 1 ] [ 2 ] интеллигенция, Russian pronunciation: [ɪntʲɪlʲɪˈɡʲentsɨjə] ; from Latin : ) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental labour aimed at disseminating culture . This therefore might include everyone from artists to school teachers and book readers. The term was first used in pre-revolutionary Russia to describe people possessing cultural and political initiative. [ 3 ] But it was commonly used by those individuals themselves to create an apparent distance from the masses, and generally retained that narrow self-definition. More recently the term mass intelligentsia has been popularized to describe the intellectual effect of tertiary education upon a population.
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Civilizations of Greater Europe before the Carolingian's Frankish Civil War (840-843): Western Europe and outlier civilizations at the time of the death of Charles the Great (or Charlemagne-814) and Emperor Louis the Pious (d. 840). The Treaty of Verdun ( Verdun-sur-Meuse , August 843) was first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century. Three surviving sons of Louis the Pious , the son and successor of Charlemagne , divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms.
Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations , outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book Theory of International Politics . Waltz argues in favor of a systemic approach: the international structure acts as a constraint on state behavior, so that only states whose outcomes fall within an expected range survive. This system is similar to a microeconomic model in which firms set prices and quantity based on the market. Neorealism, developed largely within the American political science tradition, seeks to reformulate the classical realist tradition of E.H. Carr , Hans Morgenthau , and Reinhold Niebuhr into a rigorous and positivistic social science . [ edit ] Theory
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski ( Polish : Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzeziński , Polish pronunciation: [ˈzbʲiɡɲɛf kaˈʑimʲɛʂ bʐɛˈʑiĩ̯skʲi] , English pronunciation: /ˈzbɪɡnju bɜ(r)ˈzɪnski/ ; born March 28, 1928) is a Polish American political scientist , geostrategist , and statesman who served as United States National Security Advisor to President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1981.
During the 6th millennium BC , agriculture spread from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe , and also from Mesopotamia to Egypt . World population was essentially stable at approximately 5 million, though some speculate up to 7 million. [ edit ] Events Black Sea today (light blue) and in 5600 BC (dark blue) according to Ryan's and Pitman's theories, versions of the Black Sea deluge theory Byzantine Calendar illustrating 1 September 5509 BC. Yangshao Culture
The great libraries of the ancient world served as archives for empires, sanctuaries for sacred writings, and depositories of literature and chronicles. [ edit ] Syria, Iraq, Iran The archives and texts at Ebla , ca. 2500 to the destruction of the city ca. 2250 BC, constitute the oldest organized library yet discovered: see Ebla tablets . The libraries of Ugarit (in modern Syria ), c. 1200 BC, include diplomatic archives, literary works and the earliest privately owned libraries yet recovered. The Library of Ashurbanipal (established 668–627 BC), in Nineveh (near modern Mosul , Iraq ), long considered to be the first systematically collected library, was rediscovered in the 19th century.
Niall Campbell Douglas Ferguson ( /ˈni:lˑ 'fɜrˑgʌˑsən/ ; born 18 April 1964) [ 1 ] is a Scottish historian . He is the Laurence A.
Key: The essential Olympians ' names are given in bold font . Key: The names marked in green are that of the 12 original Titans . Notes ^ a b Conflicting origins. Eros is usually mentioned as the son of Aphrodite and Ares, but Hesiod's Theogony places him as one of the primordial beings, born from the Void (Chaos). ^ a b There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod ( Theogony ) claims that she was "born" from the foam of the sea after Cronus castrated Uranus, thus making her Uranus' daughter; but Homer ( Iliad , book V) has Aphrodite as daughter of Zeus and Dione.
In Germanic paganism , the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples that inhabited Germanic Europe , there were a number of different gods and goddesses .
This is a list of known World War II era codenames for military operations , and missions commonly associated with World War II. As of 2008 [update] this is not a comprehensive list, but most major operations that Axis and Allied combatants engaged in are included, and also operations that involved neutral nation states. Operations are categorised according to the theater of operations, and an attempt has been made to cover all aspects of significant events including the Holocaust .
Emma Goldman (June 27 [ O.S. June 15] 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
This is an index of family trees available. It includes noble, politically important and royal families as well as fictional families and thematic diagrams. [ edit ] Americas [ edit ] Canada Family of Snorri Thorfinnson , first European born in the Americas 1867–: House of Hanover, House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, House of Windsor Inglis family
Bernard of Clairvaux , O.Cist (1090 – August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian order. After the death of his mother, Bernard sought admission into the Cistercian order. "Three years later, he was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d'Absinthe , about 15 km southeast of Bar-sur-Aube . According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25 June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée , which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary ." [ 1 ] In the year 1128, Bernard assisted at the Council of Troyes , at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar , who soon became the ideal of Christian nobility.
Valentin Fyodorovich Turchin ( Russian : Валенти́н Фёдорович Турчи́н , 1931 – 7 April 2010) was a Soviet and American cybernetician and computer scientist. He developed the Refal programming language , the theory of metasystem transitions and the notion of supercompilation . As such he can be seen as a pioneer in Artificial Intelligence and one of the visionaries at the basis of the Global brain idea.