Transplantation and Implants
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New horizons ... cardiac surgeon Antonio Amodeo. ROME: A 15-year-old Italian boy has become the first child patient in the world to be permanently implanted with an artificial heart. The boy, who has not been named, underwent a 10-hour operation last week and is still in intensive care but has woken up following the surgery and is said to be well and talking.
Orthopedic implants to repair fractures to the radius and ulna. Note the visible break in the ulna. (right forearm)
Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The emerging field of regenerative medicine is allowing scientists and engineers to create organs to be re-grown from the patient's own cells ( stem cells , or cells extracted from the failing organs). Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts . Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source. Organs that can be transplanted are the heart , kidneys , liver , lungs , pancreas , intestine , and thymus .
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue. Transplant rejection can be lessened by determining the molecular similitude between donor and recipient and by use of immunosuppressant drugs after transplant. [ 1 ] [ edit ] Pretransplant rejection prevention