Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.
Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.
The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-density ratio of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium. Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine. The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-density ratio of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table, titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties. Characteristics.
Titanium compounds. Halides. Organometallic complexes. History. Production and fabrication. Applications. Bioremediation. Precautions. Titanium in Africa. Titanium in Africa From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Titanium mining in Africa has been beset by environmental problems due to the polluting nature of processing rutile, a principal titanium ore.
Titanium production in Africa includes the following principal countries and companies. Contents [hide] Kenya Mozambique Sierra Leone South Africa See also References/External links Don't Let Titanium Become The Curse Of Kwale; Opinion by Sam Wainaina, The East African (Nairobi), 18 January 2001 Retrieved from " Categories: Hidden categories: All stub articles Navigation menu Personal tools Namespaces Variants Views More Navigation Interaction Tools Print/export Languages Add links This page was last modified on 5 May 2015, at 18:32. Titanium alloy. Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures). They are light in weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, medical devices, highly stressed components such as connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics. Titanium Metals. Titanium Metals Corporation (formerly NYSE: TIE), founded in 1950, is an American manufacturer of titanium-based metals products, focusing primarily on the aerospace industry.
In November 2012, it was announced the company was being purchased for $2.9 billion by Precision Castparts. Its major U.S. operations are based in Morgantown, Pennsylvania; Henderson, Nevada; Vallejo, California; and Toronto, Ohio. Its overseas operations are primarily based in the United Kingdom (in the cities of Waunarlwydd and Swansea and the village of Witton) and France. The company's current headquarters are located in Dallas, Texas. The company is most commonly referred to as TIMET, a shortened version of "TItanium METals" that is a registered company trademark.
In September, 2007, TIMET entered into a ten-year supply agreement with United Technologies Corp (UTC). Titanium ring. Titanium rings are jewelry rings or bands which have been primarily constructed from titanium.
The actual compositions of titanium can vary, such as "commercial pure" (99.2% titanium) or "aircraft grade" (primarily, 90% titanium, 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium), and titanium rings are often crafted in combination with other materials, such as gemstones and traditional jewelry metals. Even with these variations in composition and materials, titanium rings are commonly referred to as such if they contain any amount of titanium. Rings crafted from titanium are a modern phenomenon, becoming widely available on the market around the 1990s. Titanium sublimation pump.
A titanium sublimation pump (TSP) may be used as a component of ultra high vacuum systems.
Principle of operation Since the TSP filament has a finite lifetime, TSPs commonly have multiple filaments to allow the operator to switch to a new one without needing to open the chamber. Replacing used filaments can then be combined with other maintenance jobs. The effectiveness of the TSP depends on a number of factors. Amongst the most critical are; the area of the titanium film, the temperature of the chamber walls and the composition of the residual gas. Other pumps which use exactly the same working principle, but using something other than titanium as a source are also relatively common. Practical considerations When mounting the TSP in the chamber, a number of important considerations must be made.
Titanium in zircon geothermometry. Optical microscope photograph; the length of the zircon crystal is about 250 µm.
Titanium in zircon geothermometry is a form of a geothermometry technique by which the crystallization temperature of a zircon crystal can be estimated by the amount of titanium atoms which can only be found in the crystal lattice. In zircon crystals, titanium is commonly incorporated, replacing similarly charged zirconium and silicon atoms. This process is relatively unaffected by pressure and highly temperature dependent, with the amount of titanium incorporated rising exponentially with temperature, making this an accurate geothermometry method. This measurement of titanium in zircons can be used to estimate the cooling temperatures of the crystal and infer conditions during which it crystallized.
Compositional changes in the crystals growth rings can be used to estimate the thermodynamic history of the entire crystal. Zircon Image shows a unit cell of zircon.