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Bertrand Russell on God (1959) Mozilla Firefox. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a "standard of rationality" or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

There are also controversies as to whether some of these biases count as useless, irrational or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. This kind of confirmation bias has been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.[7] Mozilla Firefox. Mozilla Firefox. A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness.

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Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies. Formal fallacies[edit] Résolution des problèmes créatrice avec SCAMPER.