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5HTP. Enzyme. Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction.


As a result, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts in that they are highly specific for their substrates. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions.[3] A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome.[4][5] Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.[6] Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules.

Etymology and history Structures and mechanisms Specificity "Lock and key" model.


Food fortification. Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

Food fortification

It can be purely a commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, or sometimes it is a public health policy which aims to reduce numbers of people with dietary deficiencies in a population. Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients. Sometimes the staple foods of a region can lack particular nutrients, due to the soil of a region, or because of the inherent inadequacy of the normal diet. Addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.[1] While it is true that both fortification and enrichment refer to the addition of nutrients to food, the true definitions do slightly vary.

Food fortification was identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level.[2] Neurotransmitter. Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, but some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger proteins or peptides.


A neurotransmitter is available only briefly – before rapid deactivation – to bind to the postsynaptic receptors. Deactivation may occur due to: the removal of neurotransmitter by re-uptake into the presynaptic terminal; or degradative enzymes in the synaptic cleft. Nevertheless, short-term exposure of the receptor to neurotransmitter is typically sufficient for causing a postsynaptic response by way of synaptic transmission. In response to a threshold action potential or graded electrical potential, a neurotransmitter is released at the presynaptic terminal. Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation. Discovery[edit] Until the early 20th century, scientists assumed that the majority of synaptic communication in the brain was electrical. Identification[edit] Types[edit] Major neurotransmitters: Actions[edit]

Racetam. Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.[1] Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics.


Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants. Mechanism[edit] There is no universally accepted mechanism of action for racetams. Adrenergic. Cholinergic. The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation.


Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. It prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. Nutraceutical. Anxiolytic. An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.


This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as beverage alcohols (which contain ethanol) induce anxiolysis. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Anxiolytics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Nootropic. Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɨks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration.[1][2] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr.


Corneliu E. Giurgea,[3][4] derived from the Greek words νους nous, or "mind," and τρέπειν trepein meaning "to bend/turn". Nootropics: their effects, their risks, and where to get them - Thinking in a nutshell. (With the perspectives of a user) Ten years ago I went on a quest to become an expert on coffee and to sample as many different ways of making it and as many different varieties that existed.

Nootropics: their effects, their risks, and where to get them - Thinking in a nutshell

I tried everything from the French Press to the Coffee Siphon, Hawaiian Kona to Jamaican Blue Mountain. Emulsion. A.


Two immiscible liquids, not yet emulsified B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates D.