Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. As a result, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. Enzyme
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food. It can be purely a commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, or sometimes it is a public health policy which aims to reduce numbers of people with dietary deficiencies in a population. Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients. Food fortification
Neurotransmitter Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, but some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger proteins or peptides. A neurotransmitter is available only briefly – before rapid deactivation – to bind to the postsynaptic receptors. Deactivation may occur due to: the removal of neurotransmitter by re-uptake into the presynaptic terminal; or degradative enzymes in the synaptic cleft. Nevertheless, short-term exposure of the receptor to neurotransmitter is typically sufficient for causing a postsynaptic response by way of synaptic transmission. In response to a threshold action potential or graded electrical potential, a neurotransmitter is released at the presynaptic terminal.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants. Racetam
Cholinergic The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin.
Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, was coined in 1989 by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM) (Crawford, New Jersey). The term is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products, specific diets and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages. Nutraceutical
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as beverage alcohols (which contain ethanol) induce anxiolysis. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Anxiolytics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Anxiolytic
Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɨks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, derived from the Greek words νους nous, or "mind," and τρέπειν trepein meaning "to bend/turn". Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth.
Nootropics: their effects, their risks, and where to get them - Thinking in a nutshell (With the perspectives of a user) Ten years ago I went on a quest to become an expert on coffee and to sample as many different ways of making it and as many different varieties that existed. I tried everything from the French Press to the Coffee Siphon, Hawaiian Kona to Jamaican Blue Mountain. But unsatisfied with mere coffee, I went on a quest to find out how to use chemicals to enhance my mind. It had its roots in old high-school days when I'd bring a sixpack of Jolt cola to a computer-programming marathon: cramming together study halls and lunch breaks in my senior year.
Emulsion A. Two immiscible liquids, not yet emulsified B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I C.