Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. As a result, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. Enzyme
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food. It can be purely a commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, or sometimes it is a public health policy which aims to reduce numbers of people with dietary deficiencies in a population. Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients. Food fortification
Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse. Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal, on the presynaptic side of a synapse.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants. Racetam
Cholinergic The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin.
Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical” and was coined in 1989 by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM), Crawford, New Jersey. The term is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products, specific diets and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages. Nutraceutical
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a drug or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Anxiolytic
Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɨks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that purportedly improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr.
Nootropics: their effects, their risks, and where to get them - Thinking in a nutshell (With the perspectives of a user)
Emulsion A. Two immiscible liquids, not yet emulsified B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I C.