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5HTP. Enzyme. Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. As a result, products are formed faster and reactions reach their equilibrium state more rapidly. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts in that they are highly specific for their substrates. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Etymology and history As early as the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the digestion of meat by stomach secretions[7] and the conversion of starch to sugars by plant extracts and saliva were known. Having shown that enzymes could function outside a living cell, the next step was to determine their biochemical nature.

Structures and mechanisms Specificity.


Food fortification. Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food. It can be purely a commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, or sometimes it is a public health policy which aims to reduce numbers of people with dietary deficiencies in a population. Diets that lack variety can be deficient in certain nutrients. Sometimes the staple foods of a region can lack particular nutrients, due to the soil of a region, or because of the inherent inadequacy of the normal diet.

Addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.[1] While it is true that both fortification and enrichment refer to the addition of nutrients to food, the true definitions do slightly vary. Food fortification was identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level.[2] Types of Food Fortification[edit]

Neurotransmitter. Most neurotransmitters are about the size of a single amino acid, but some neurotransmitters may be the size of larger proteins or peptides. A neurotransmitter is available only briefly – before rapid deactivation – to bind to the postsynaptic receptors. Deactivation may occur due to: the removal of neurotransmitter by re-uptake into the presynaptic terminal; or degradative enzymes in the synaptic cleft. Nevertheless, short-term exposure of the receptor to neurotransmitter is typically sufficient for causing a postsynaptic response by way of synaptic transmission. In response to a threshold action potential or graded electrical potential, a neurotransmitter is released at the presynaptic terminal. Low level "baseline" release also occurs without electrical stimulation.

The released neurotransmitter may then move across the synapse to be detected by and bind with receptors in the postsynaptic neuron. Discovery[edit] Identification[edit] Types[edit] Major neurotransmitters: Actions[edit] Racetam. Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.[1] Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants. Mechanism[edit] There is no universally accepted mechanism of action for racetams. Like some ampakines, some racetams such as piracetam and aniracetam are positive allosteric modulators of the AMPA receptor.[3] Racetams are understood to work by activating glutamate receptors that are colocalized with cholinergic receptors, thus increasing the frequency of activation of the latter.[4] The racetams consequently increase memory capacity by a similar method as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.[5] Of the cognitive enhancing members of the racetam family, nootropic potency is increased when taken with choline (or other acetylcholine precursors).[6] Examples[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Löscher, W.; Richter, A. (2000).

Adrenergic. Cholinergic. The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X− In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin.

It prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. The richest sources of choline are liver, kidney, brain, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, and egg yolk. In neuroscience and related fields, the term cholinergic is used in the following related contexts: Cholinergic drug[edit] Structure activity relationship for cholinergic drugs[3][edit] 1. 2. 3. 4. Cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease[edit] As researchers began to focus on neurotransmitter imbalances as a cause of AD, the cholinergic hypothesis was proposed.

See also[edit] References[edit] Nutraceutical. Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, was coined in 1989 by Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine (FIM) (Crawford, New Jersey).[1] The term is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products, specific diets and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages. Regulation[edit] Nutraceuticals are treated differently in different jurisdictions. Canada[edit] Under Canadian law, a nutraceutical can either be marketed as a food or as a drug; the terms "nutraceutical" and "functional food" have no legal distinction,[2] referring to "a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food [and] is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. " United States[edit] International sources[edit] Market[edit] Classification of nutraceuticals[edit] History[edit]

Anxiolytic. An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as beverage alcohols (which contain ethanol) induce anxiolysis. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Anxiolytics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Bright light therapy and other interventions have also been found to have an anxiolytic effect.[2] Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms of anxiety. Types of anxiolytics/anti-anxiety drugs[edit] Medications[edit] Benzodiazepines[edit] Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic properties at moderate dosage.

Nootropic. Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɨks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks), also referred to as smart drugs, memory enhancers, neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, and intelligence enhancers, are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that improve one or more aspects of mental function, such as working memory, motivation, and attention.[1][2] The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by the Romanian Dr.

Corneliu E. Giurgea,[3][4] derived from the Greek words νους nous, or "mind", and τρέπειν trepein meaning to bend or turn.[5] Availability and prevalence[edit] At present, there are only a few drugs which have been shown to improve some aspect of cognition in medical reviews. [citation needed] Many more are in different stages of development.[6] The most commonly used class of drug is stimulants, such as caffeine.[7] Academic use[edit] Surveys suggest that 3–11% of American students and 0.7–4.5% of German students have used cognitive enhancers in their lifetime.[11][12][13] Side effects[edit] Drugs[edit] Nootropics: their effects, their risks, and where to get them - Thinking in a nutshell. (With the perspectives of a user) Ten years ago I went on a quest to become an expert on coffee and to sample as many different ways of making it and as many different varieties that existed.

I tried everything from the French Press to the Coffee Siphon, Hawaiian Kona to Jamaican Blue Mountain. But unsatisfied with mere coffee, I went on a quest to find out how to use chemicals to enhance my mind. It had its roots in old high-school days when I'd bring a sixpack of Jolt cola to a computer-programming marathon: cramming together study halls and lunch breaks in my senior year. The nootropics of that era were caffeine, sugar, cortisol, dopamine, epinephrine and norepineprhine, and the last four in that list were all natural hormones my body was making itself. The first "smart drug" I heard about was Modafinil, which was described as a pill that could let you stay awake without fatigue for 48 hours, sleep for 8, and then repeat the experience again indefinitely. Iodine Will I feel anything? Emulsion.

A. Two immiscible liquids, not yet emulsified B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates D. The surfactant (outline around particles) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase II and Phase I, stabilizing the emulsion IUPAC definition Fluid system in which liquid droplets are dispersed in a liquid. Note 1: The definition is based on the definition in ref.[1] Note 2: The droplets may be amorphous, liquid-crystalline, or any mixture thereof.

Note 4: An emulsion is termed an oil/water (o/w) emulsion if the dispersed phase is an organic material and the continuous phase is water or an aqueous solution and is termed water/oil (w/o) if the dispersed phase is water or an aqueous solution and the continuous phase is an organic liquid (an "oil"). Note 5: A w/o emulsion is sometimes called an inverse emulsion. The word "emulsion" comes from the Latin word for "to milk", as milk is an emulsion of milk fat and water, among other components.