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Before DNA, before RNA: Life in the hodge-podge world - life - 08 January 2012

Life on Earth may have begun with a splash of TNA – a different kind of genetic material altogether. Because RNA can do many things at once, those studying the origins of life have long thought that it was the first genetic material. But the discovery that a chemical relative called TNA can perform one of RNA's defining functions calls this into question.

Instead, the very first forms of life may have used a mix of genetic materials. Today, most life bar some viruses uses DNA to store information, and RNA to execute the instructions encoded by that DNA. A key piece of evidence for this "RNA world" hypothesis is that RNA is a jack of all trades. Now it seems TNA might have been just as capable, although it is not found in nature today. It differs from RNA and DNA in its sugar backbone: TNA uses threose where RNA uses ribose and DNA deoxyribose. The team took a library of TNAs and evolved them in the presence of a protein. No TNA world. New Scientist: It's not all about you DNA... Foresight Institute: CAD tools to engineer meta... Scientific American: Green Glow Shows RNA Editi... Green Glow Shows RNA Editing in Real Time. Glowing genes: White arrows show hot spots of ADAR activation; courtesy of Reenan Lab/Brown University It’s a long way from gene to protein.

Green Glow Shows RNA Editing in Real Time

The dogmatic scenario is: DNA gets transcribed into RNA, which gets translated into protein. But in real life, and in real living things, the workings aren’t quite that simple. One example: individual units of RNA sometimes need to be converted, in what’s called RNA editing, into related entities for the ultimate formation of the right proteins. An enzyme called ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) is responsible for a specific such alteration important for good nervous system function. Now researchers have devised a technique for seeing this particular RNA editing process in real time—the corrected strand gives off a green glow—and even for the restoration of functionality.

Reenan and colleagues produced fruit flies that included an altered version of the gene for the oft-used lab tool green fluorescent protein. Scicasts News Media: Scientists Discover RNA M... Scicasts News Media: Scientists Discover RNA M... Scientist Solutions: #lifescience RNA extractio... Future Aware: CAD-Type Tools for Enginee... KQEDscience: RT @berkeleylab: Joint Bio... Science Magazine: 2002 Breakthrough of the Y... Nature News&Comment: Caught the cool video show... Nature News&Comment: Most popular on our site r... Nature News&Comment: Video animation: RNA inter...

Video animation: RNA interference. Nature News&Comment: Video animation: RNA inter... Video animation: RNA interference. Our colleagues over at Nature Reviews Genetics have put together this very cool animation of RNA interference.

Video animation: RNA interference

Check it out. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway that is used in many different organisms to regulate gene expression. This animation introduces the principles of RNAi involving small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). We take you on an audio-visual journey through the steps of gene expression and show you an up-to-date view of how RNAi can silence specific mRNAs in the cytoplasm.

Nature News&Comment: Very cool animation of RNA... Scientific Reports: Cdc14b regulates mammalian... Science Magazine: RNA processing factors reg... National Science Fdn: From the field: Study Iden... KQEDscience: DARPA has called for propo... Scientist Solutions: #gene #silencing Target pr... New Scientist: DARPA wants to use small i... Science Magazine: Defects in miRNA processin... Nature Protocols: And the protocol for the d... Nature Protocols: 5 new protocols for this w... Science Magazine: Up close and personal with...

DailyMe Science: H. Gobind Khorana, 1968 No... Fabrice Leclerc: Enroweb: "Knowledge of the... Antoine Blanchard: "Knowledge of the sequence... Tssinews: "RNA Molecules Contain Hig... Foresight Institute: Controlling artificial mol... KQEDscience: RT @naturenews: Argument o... Nature News&Comment: Argument over RNA editing... Nature News&Comment: Argument over RNA editing... Argument over RNA editing study deepens. The geneticist whose claimed to find a new mechanism of genetic regulation is defending her work against critics.

Argument over RNA editing study deepens

Vivian Cheung of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia says that her team stands by a May paper in which it reported that it had found more than ten thousand sites where transcribed RNA differed from an individual’s corresponding DNA sequence. The paper raised the possibility of an as-yet unknown mechanism that performs a new form of “RNA editing” in our cells. Cheung also says that new data from her own group and from others (PDF) supports the finding. “We stand by our report that there are many sites in the human genome where RNA sequences differ from their corresponding DNA sequences, and the types of RNA-DNA differences (RDDs) are not restricted to the known A-to-G and C-to-U RNA editing events,” Cheung wrote in an email. Cheung’s defense comes after Daniel R.

But Chueng writes that “the evidence presented by Schrider and colleagues are not rigorous.” Scientist Solutions: #RNA RNA isolation by triz... RNA isolation by trizol method. Hi, sitara Your solution is hazy because of contamination with chloromphenecol For to rectify this problem you give IPA teatment once more time and washing of 70% IPA must be done at room temprature. it will provide environmnet to washout the protein and other contamination. after that you dry it properly, not over dry.

RNA isolation by trizol method

Only IPA smell should be going out from the tube. Scicasts News Media: New Role for RNA Interfere... Science Magazine: Follow the leader: how 5'-... Scientist Solutions: #lifescience #jobs Two PhD... Scicasts News Media: Common RNA Modification Li... Common RNA Modification Linked to Obesity. Nature Protocols: MT @NatureAuthors: Nov iss... DailyMe Science: New role for RNA interfere... Nature News&Comment: RNA editing may not be as... RNA editing may not be as widespread as claimed. A paper that appeared to find evidence for a new mechanism of genetic regulation has been challenged by an analysis released today.

RNA editing may not be as widespread as claimed

In May, a team led by Vivian Cheung of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia reported that in an analysis of 27 people, it had found 10,210 sites where transcribed RNA differed from an individual’s corresponding DNA sequence. The finding was startling because it implied that there might be an as-yet undiscovered mechanism of ‘RNA editing’ that could disrupt the central dogma, the process whereby DNA is faithfully transcribed into matching sequences of RNA, which are translated into proteins.

But other researchers pointed out that Cheung’s team had not performed some crucial analyses to ensure that it was actually observing mismatches rather than genetic sequencing errors or accurately transcribed regions of DNA. Today, Daniel R. Schrider, Jean-Francois Gout and Matthew W. Hahn says his team did contact Cheung’s group, but did not receive a reply. Science Magazine: Hold and release: nucleoti... KQEDscience: What You Eat Affects Your... TheScientistLLC: Speak, RNA: A trip through...

Nature News&Comment: RT @Ananyo: Turns out we r... ScienceStage: RNA Catal... Nature Protocols: This week we have new addi... Scitable: Remodeling cells with #RNA... Scientific Reports: A Non-coding RNA of Insect... TheScientistLLC: #Macular degeneration suff... TS-Si News Service: "Fluorescent Tool Tracks C... Science Magazine: Synthetic RNA nanostructur... Scicasts News Media: Non-coding RNA has Role in... Nature Protocols: From our Forum: any sugges... Scicasts News Media: New Research Describes Key...

TS-Si News Service: "Genetic Stop Points and D... IRIC: June 27-28 @ IRIC: Symposi... Nature News&Comment: Evidence of altered RNA st... TS-Si News Service: "Scientists Find Inexact R... Scicasts News Media: New Level of Genetic Diver... Scientific American: RNA Editing to Create 'Acq... Nature News&Comment: Fun! @edyong209 has storif... Nature News&Comment: RT @betterbio: DUDE, THEY...