background preloader

Syntax

Facebook Twitter

Cognate object. Examples[edit] English[edit] In English, the construction can occur with a number of intransitive verbs: He slept a troubled sleep.

Cognate object

(i.e., He slept, and his sleep was troubled.)He laughed a bitter laugh. (i.e., He laughed bitterly.)He died a painful death. Diathesis alternation. In linguistics the term diathesis alternation or verb alternation[1] refers to the fact that verbs can be used in different subcategorization frames where they slightly change their semantic meaning.

Diathesis alternation

It is a hard problem for theoretical linguistics how to encode constraints on the diathesis alternation of a specific verb to a lexicon. It is also claimed that the manner in which verbs undergo diathesis alternation can be used to identify the semantic class they belong to e.g. in a machine learning task. Empty-nps. II-Pred. We say that a predication relation holds between an [srs -] constituent and whatever instantiates the [gf subj] argument of the head of that constituent.

II-Pred

The simplest case is the Subject- Predicate Construction: the right member of that construction stands in the predication relation to the left member. Paper1682. Index. List of syntactic phenomena. Switch-reference. Meanings of switch-reference[edit] The basic distinction made by a switch-reference system is whether the following clause has the same subject (SS) or a different subject (DS).

Switch-reference

This is known as canonical switch-reference. Wh-movement. The name wh-movement stems from early Generative Grammar (1960s and 1970s) and was a reference to the transformational analysis of that day, whereby the wh-expression appeared in its canonical position at deep structure and then moved leftward out of that position to land in its derived position at the front of the sentence/clause at surface structure.[2] Many modern theories of syntax do not acknowledge movement in this sense, nonetheless the term wh-movement (or wh-fronting or wh-extraction) survives and is widely used to denote the observed phenomenon even by those theories that do not acknowledge movement.

Wh-movement

Basic examples[edit] Non-configurational language. Development[edit] The concept of non-configurationality was developed by grammarians working within Noam Chomsky's generative framework. Some of these linguists observed that the Syntactic Universals proposed by Chomsky and which required a rigid phrase structure was challenged by the syntax of some of the world's languages that had a much less rigid syntax than that of the languages on which Chomsky had based his studies.[1] The concept was invented by Ken Hale who described the syntax of Warlpiri as being non-configurational.

11%20Luraghi%20final. Ross Constraints. Selected Papers by Haj Ross. Escher sentences: prior art. Entangledbank: More than I have. Well, Geoff Pullum and Mark Liberman have just both written about it, and there's only one of me, so I suppose that means that more people have written about this than I have.

entangledbank: More than I have

Except that, as they both point out, that last bit is complete nonsense. But it's not ungrammatical. It seems to make perfect sense. Until you try to work out what it means. More people have written about this than I have. Ten Types of Grammar - Different Ways of Analyzing Language Structures and Functions - English Grammar and Usage. By Richard Nordquist Updated March 19, 2016.

Ten Types of Grammar - Different Ways of Analyzing Language Structures and Functions - English Grammar and Usage

Augury - Ideas and stuff. Two kinds of Two kinds of Theory I want to clarify a distinction that exists within linguistics between two major classes of theory, what I call the “nominalist” theories and the “realist” theories, and along another dimension, the distinction between derivational and representational theories.

Augury - Ideas and stuff.

To do this, I’ll discuss categorial grammars throughout this post, as a paradigm case where all four combinations [...] Refinement Types and Eliminating Proof Terms For the last 9 to 12 months I’ve been experimenting with Category Theory and the dependently typed programming language Agda to try and get a better grip on the notion of global (i.e. representational and transderivational) phenomena in linguistic theory, in relation to purely derivational phenomena.

Specifically, I’ve been trying to develop a clear theory [...] The Reader monad for semanticists Sunday, November 28th, 2010. Generative semantics. Generative semantics is the name of a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of various early students of Noam Chomsky: John R.

Generative semantics

Ross, Paul Postal, and later James McCawley. George Lakoff was also instrumental in developing and advocating the theory.[1] The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid-1960s, but stood largely apart from, and in opposition to, work by Noam Chomsky and his later students. This move led to a more abstract framework and lately to the abandonment of the notion of the CFG formal grammar induced deep structure. Using Transformational Grammar as an Editing Tool. Using Transformational Grammar as an Editing Tool (The text version of a paper given at IPCC 95, Savannah, Georgia, on September 29, 1995)

Using Transformational Grammar as an Editing Tool

Fis-optbind. Pylkkanen_2002. Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo. "From rapaport Fri Apr 14 11:37:20 1995 To: aima-bug@cs.berkeley.edu Subject: Buffalo sentence. Diagrammatic excitement. « previous post | next post » An interesting Op-Ed in the NYT today by Kitty Burns Florey — "A Picture of Language", about the history of sentence diagramming: The curious art of diagramming sentences was invented 165 years ago by S.W. Clark, a schoolmaster in Homer, N.Y. His book, published in 1847, was called “A Practical Grammar: In which Words, Phrases, and Sentences Are Classified According to Their Offices and Their Various Relations to One Another.” His goal was to simplify the teaching of English grammar. HarmBrouwer. Mdt. Syntax Tree Generator. PhpSyntaxTree - drawing syntax trees made easy.

About phpSyntaxTree allows you to generate graphical syntax trees from labelled bracket notation phrases. You can then include the graphics into your homework or assignments. Please send your comments and suggestions to andre@ironcreek.net. Usage Enter a phrase above using labelled bracket notation. To create a node with subscript parts, separate the subscript part using the _ character. Disable color and/or smooth lines to create a more black & white printer friendly image. News.