The Asuka period (飛鳥時代, Asuka jidai?) was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592-645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved greatly during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara. Artistically, the period can be further divided into two periods: the Asuka period (up to the Taika Reforms), when early Buddhist cultural imports and influences from Northern Wei are prevalent; and the Hakuhō period (after the Taika Reform), in which more Sui and Tang influences appear. Naming The term "Asuka period" was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture. Asuka period
The Nara period (奈良時代, Nara jidai?) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. Empress Gemmei established the capital of Heijō-kyō (present-day Nara). Except for a five-year period (740–745), when the capital was briefly moved again, it remained the capital of Japanese civilization until Emperor Kammu established a new capital, Nagaoka-kyō, in 784, before moving to Heian-kyō, or Kyoto, a decade later in 794. Nara period
The Heian period (平安時代, Heian jidai?) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185 A.D. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Heian period
The Kamakura period (鎌倉時代, Kamakura jidai?, 1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, officially established in 1192 AD in Kamakura, by the first shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan. The Kamakura period ended in 1333 AD, with the destruction of the shogunate and the short reestablishment of imperial rule, under Emperor Go-Daigo by Ashikaga Takauji, Nitta Yoshisada, and Kusunoki Masashige. Shogunate and Hōjō Regency Kamakura period
Kenmu Restoration The Kenmu (or Kemmu) Restoration (建武の新政, Kenmu no shinsei?) (1333–1336) is the name given to both the three-year period of Japanese history between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period, and the political events that took place in it. The restoration was an effort made by Emperor Go-Daigo to bring the Imperial House and the nobility it represented back into power, thus restoring a civilian government after almost a century and a half of military rule. The attempted restoration ultimately failed and was replaced by the Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1575). This was to be the last time the Emperor had any power until the Meiji restoration of 1867. The many and serious political errors made by the Imperial House during this three-year period were to have important repercussions in the following decades and end with the rise to power of the Ashikaga dynasty. Background Objectives of the restoration
The Muromachi period (室町時代, Muromachi jidai?, also known as the Muromachi era, the Ashikaga era, or the Ashikaga period) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1337 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bakufu or Ashikaga bakufu), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kemmu restoration (1333–1336) of imperial rule was brought to a close. Muromachi period
The Sengoku period (戦国時代, Sengoku jidai?, c. 1467 – c. 1573) is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict that – like its otherwise unrelated ancient Chinese namesake – is also known as the Warring States period. It came to an end when all political power was unified under the Tokugawa shogunate. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232,[clarification needed] it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyo (local warlords), especially those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto. As trade with China grew, the economy developed, and the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. Sengoku period
The Azuchi-Momoyama period (安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama jidai?) or the Shokuho period (織豊時代, Shokoho jidai?) at the end of the Warring States Period (also known as Sengoku period (戦国時代, Sengoku jidai?)) in Japan, when the political unification that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate took place. Azuchi–Momoyama period
Edo period The Edo period (江戸時代, Edo jidai?), or Tokugawa period (徳川時代, Tokugawa jidai?), is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, environmental protection policies, and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.
A 17th-century European engraving depicting a Dutch tributary embassy to the Tokugawa's residence. With the change to isolationism the bakufu sought to create a tribute system with China as the model. The 1710 Ryukyuan mission, in this scroll a Japanese printer depicts Ryukyuan guards and a music band escorting the envoy and his officials through Edo. With increasingly distant relations with China, the submission of Ryukyu by Satsuma allowed Japan to trade with China via the Ryukyus. Sakoku (鎖国?, "chained country") was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which no foreigner could enter nor could any Japanese leave the country on penalty of death. Sakoku
Bakumatsu Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of Bakumatsu to seize personal power.[page needed] Furthermore there were two other main driving forces for dissent: first, growing resentment on the part of the tozama daimyo (or outside lords), and second, growing anti-western sentiment following the arrival of Matthew C. Perry. The first related to those lords who had fought against Tokugawa forces at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and had from that point on been excluded permanently from all powerful positions within the shogunate. The second was to be expressed in the phrase sonnō jōi, or "revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians".