How politics hack us
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Fear mongering (or scaremongering or scare tactics ) is the use of fear to influence the opinions and actions of others towards some specific end. The feared object or subject is sometimes exaggerated , and the pattern of fear mongering is usually one of repetition, in order to continuously reinforce the intended effects of this tactic, sometimes in the form of a vicious circle . [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Examples [ edit ] Campaign advertisements
Media manipulation can be subtle or direct, can be used by any political persuasion, and is used by all social classes. Media manipulation is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. [ 1 ] Such tactics may include the use of logical fallacies and propaganda techniques, and often involve the suppression of information or points of view by crowding them out, by inducing other people or groups of people to stop listening to certain arguments, or by simply diverting attention elsewhere. [ 1 ] In Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes , Jacques Ellul writes that public opinion can only express itself through channels which are provided by the mass media of communication-without which there could be no propaganda. [ 2 ] It is used within public relations , propaganda , marketing , etc. While the objective for each context is quite different, the broad techniques are oftentimes similar.
Political consulting , beyond the self-evident definition of consulting in political matters, refers to a specific management consulting industry which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns . This article deals primarily with the development and nature of political consulting in the United States. Though their most important role is arguably in the development and production of mass media (largely television and direct mail), political consultants advise campaigns on virtually all of their activities, from opposition research and voter polling to field strategy and get out the vote efforts.
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By Michael Collins "I'm constantly annoyed that people are distracted by false conspiracies such as 9/11, when all around we provide evidence of real conspiracies, for war or mass financial fraud." Julian Asange, Wikileaks, July 19 ( Image right ) John Young was one of the co-founders of Wikileaks. He quickly left the organization in disagreement with some of its policies ( CNET ).
Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics Rhetoric is the art of discourse , an art that aims to improve the facility of speakers or writers who attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. [ 1 ] As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the Western tradition. [ 2 ] Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion." [ 3 ] Rhetorics typically provide heuristics for understanding, discovering, and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals, logos , pathos , and ethos .
The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument (1831) ( Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten ) is an acidulous and sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in sarcastic deadpan. [ 1 ] In it, Schopenhauer examines a total of thirty-eight methods of showing up one's opponent in a debate. He introduces his essay with the idea that philosophers have concentrated in ample measure on the rules of logic , but have not (especially since the time of Immanuel Kant ) engaged with the darker art of the dialectic , of controversy. Whereas the purpose of logic is classically said to be a method of arriving at the truth, dialectic, says Schopenhauer, "...on the other hand, would treat of the intercourse between two rational beings who, because they are rational, ought to think in common, but who, as soon as they cease to agree like two clocks keeping exactly the same time, create a disputation, or intellectual contest."