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Jean-François Champollion. Jean-François Champollion (23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, decipherer of the Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Jean-François Champollion

Biography[edit] Champollion was the last of seven children (two of whom died before he was born). He was raised in humble circumstances; because his parents could not afford to send him to school, he was taught to read by his brother Jacques. Jacques, although studious and largely self-educated, did not have Jean-François' genius for language; however, he was talented at earning a living, and supported Jean-François for most of his life.[1] Champollion married Rose Blanc (1794–1871) in 1818. Egyptian hieroglyphics[edit] In 1822, Champollion finally published the first correct translation of the hieroglyphs and the key to the Egyptian grammatical system. Franco-Tuscan Expedition[edit] On 21 July 1828, with four members, they boarded the ship Eglé at Toulon and set sail for Egypt. Certain portions of Champollion's works were edited by Jacques.

Madame de Pompadour. Early life[edit] Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, otherwise known as Reinette ("little queen") to her friends, was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson (1684–1754) and his wife Madeleine de La Motte (1699–1745).

Madame de Pompadour

It is suspected that her biological father was either the rich financier Pâris de Montmartel or the tax collector (fermier général) Le Normant de Tournehem.[2] Le Normant de Tournehem became her legal guardian when François Poisson was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts, a crime at that time punishable by death. (He was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France.)

Her younger brother was Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, who later became the Marquis de Marigny. Poisson was intelligent, beautiful and refined. She later claimed that, at the age of nine, her mother took her to a fortune teller and told that she would one day reign over the heart of a king.[4] Marriage[edit] French Revolution. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

French Revolution

Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of theocracies and absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East.

Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.[1] List of French monarchs. Louis XVI of France. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime which culminated at the Estates-General of 1789.

Louis XVI of France

Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively. His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

Childhood[edit] Family life[edit] Marie Antoinette (2006 film) Marie Antoinette. Marie Antoinette (/məˈriː æntwəˈnɛt/ or /æntwɑːˈnɛt/; French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt]; baptised Maria Antonia Josepha (or Josephina) Johanna;[1] 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793), born an Archduchess of Austria, was Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792.

Marie Antoinette

She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. In April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, Dauphin of France, she became Dauphine of France. She assumed the title Queen of France and of Navarre when her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI upon the death of his grandfather Louis XV in May 1774. After seven years of marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the first of four children. The royal family's flight to Varennes had disastrous effects on French popular opinion: Louis XVI was deposed and the monarchy abolished on 21 September 1792; the royal family was subsequently imprisoned at the Temple Prison.