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Ancient_greece. Ancient Times. Vikings. Facilitated by advanced seafaring skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times also extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, expansion and settlement, Viking (Norse) communities and polities were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America. This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while simultaneously introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions.

Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term frequently applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often strongly differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. Etymology Other names. Norse art. Timeline for the Norse animal styles. Viking Age art or Norse art is a term for the art of Scandinavia and Viking settlements elsewhere, especially in the British Isles, during the Viking Age. Viking art has many elements in common with Celtic Art, Romanesque art and East-European (Eurasian).[1] Historical Context[edit] Styles[edit] The animal ornamentation of the Viking Age is usually categorized into Oseberg style, Borre style, Jelling style, Mammen style, Ringerike style and Urnes style.[3] Oseberg style[edit] The Oseberg style is a Viking Era animal ornamentation in Viking Age art.[4] It is named after the Oseberg ship grave, a well-preserved Viking age ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold County, Norway.

The characteristic motif of the style is gripping beasts. The main symbol of the Viking Age is the Viking ship. A "Shield List" is where all the shields of the warriors were tied up. Borre style[edit] Bronze pendant from Hedeby. Mead hall. A reconstructed Viking Age longhouse (28.5 metres long). In ancient Scandinavia and Germanic Europe a mead hall or feasting hall was initially simply a large building with a single room. From the fifth century to early medieval times such a building was the residence of a lord and his retainers. The mead hall was generally the great hall of the king. As such, it was likely to be the safest place in the kingdom. Etymology[edit] The old name of such halls may have been sal/salr and thus be present in old place names such as "Uppsala".[1] The meaning has been preserved in German Saal, Romanian Sala, Dutch zaal, Icelandic salur, Swedish sal, Finnish sali, French salle and Italian sala (all meaning "hall" or "large room").

In Old English, sele and sæl were used. Archaeology[edit] From around AD 500 up until the Christianization of Scandinavia (by the 13th century), these large halls were vital parts of the political center. Examples that have been excavated include: Southwest of Lejre, Denmark. Longhouse. A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America.

Many were built from timber and often represent the earliest form of permanent structure in many cultures. Types include the Neolithic long house of Europe, the stone Medieval Dartmoor longhouse which also housed livestock, and the various types of longhouses built by different cultures among the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Europe[edit] There are two European longhouse types of designs that are now extinct. The medieval longhouse types of Europe of which some have survived are among others: Dartmoor granite longhouse Medieval development of the Germanic longhouse[edit] The Americas[edit] In South America, the Tucano people of Colombia and northwest Brazil traditionally combine a household in a single long house. Asia[edit] Ancient Mumun pottery period culture[edit] Taiwan[edit] Borneo longhouse[edit] Siberut[edit] Mead. Mead (/ˈmiːd/; archaic and dialectal "medd"; from Old English "meodu"[1]), is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, and frequently fruits, spices, grains or hops.[2][3][4] (Hops act as a preservative and produce a bitter, beer-like flavor.)

The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV[5] to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the beverage's fermentable sugar is derived from honey.[6] It may be still, carbonated or naturally sparkling, and it may be dry, semi-sweet or sweet.[7] Mead is known from many sources of ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia. "It can be regarded as the ancestor of all fermented drinks," Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat has speculated, "antedating the cultivation of the soil.

Claude Lévi-Strauss makes a case for the invention of mead as a marker of the passage "from nature to culture History[edit] Around AD 550, the Brythonic-speaking bard Taliesin wrote the Kanu y med or "Song of Mead. History of the Ancient World: Rosetta stone. Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young and Champollion's contributions to the decipherment, and since 2003, demands for the stone's return to Egypt. Description[edit] Original stele[edit] One possible reconstruction of the original stele The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site.[9] Owing to its damaged state, none of the three texts is absolutely complete.

The full length of the hieroglyphic text and the total size of the original stele, of which the Rosetta Stone is a fragment, can be estimated based on comparable stelae that have survived, including other copies of the same order. Suggest that it originally had a rounded top.[7][13] The height of the original stele is estimated to have been about 149 centimetres (59 in).[13] Japan. Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 You may need rendering support to display the Japanese text in this article correctly. Japan ( i/dʒəˈpæn/; Japanese: 日本 Nippon [nip̚põ̞ɴ] or Nihon [nihõ̞ɴ]; formally 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. Etymology The English word Japan possibly derives from the early Mandarin Chinese or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the Japanese name, 日本, which in Japanese is pronounced Nippon listen or Nihon listen .

History Energy. China. China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.38[14] billion. The PRC is a one-party state governed by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces; five autonomous regions; four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing); two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau); and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second-largest country by land area,[16] and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement. [i] China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.

Etymology History Prehistory Early dynastic rule Geography. History of Chinese art. Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and that of overseas Chinese can also be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Early "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC, mostly consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is typically classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years. Chinese art has arguably the oldest continuous tradition in the world, and is marked by an unusual degree of continuity within, and consciousness of, that tradition, lacking an equivalent to the Western collapse and gradual recovery of classical styles.

Painting[edit] The two main techniques in Chinese painting are: Sculpture[edit] Pottery[edit] Decorative arts[edit] Neolithic pottery[edit] Pottery[edit] Egypt. Egypt ( i/ˈiːdʒɪpt/; Arabic: مِصر‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Khemi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is the world's only contiguous Eurafrasian nation.

Most of Egypt's territory of 1,010,408 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) lies within the Nile Valley. Egypt is a Mediterranean country. It is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BC as one of the world's first nation states.[14] Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.

Names History Prehistory and Ancient Egypt. Egyptian language. Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC,[3] making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, outside of Sumerian. Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic. The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt.[1] Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church. Classification[edit] In Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants */d z ð/ developed into pharyngeal 〈ꜥ〉 /ʕ/, e.g. Egyptian has many biradical and perhaps monoradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots.[8] Egyptian probably is more archaic in this regard, whereas Semitic likely underwent later regularizations converting roots into the triradical pattern.[8] History[edit] Dialects[edit]

History_of_Egypt. This article or section might be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective. (April 2014) The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta. Its rich history also comes from its native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Human settlement in Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC with Aterian tool manufacturing.

Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly thirty years of rule by former president Hosni Mubarak. Prehistory (pre–3100 BC) Ancient Egypt (3100–332 BC) First Persian rule Second Persian rule. The Egyptian Book of the Dead Index. Sacred Texts Egypt The Papyrus of Ani by Introduction Translation Because of the substantial amount of hieroglypics interspersed in the original text, I have omitted the ### 'glyph' placeholder where context permits, for readability. The file above, which appears at on the Internet at Sacred-Texts for the first time is a faithful e-text of the 1895 edition of the E.A. In November of 2000 I inventoried my library and found that I was missing Budge's Book of the Dead.

According to John Mark Ockerbloom, the proprietor of the excellent Online Books Page, the version circulating on the Internet is a highly edited version of Budge from a much later date (1913). "I did a little legwork, and it appears that the "mystery text" is in fact from the Medici Society edition of 1913. Thanks to Mr. In any case, the version now at sacred-texts is a completely new e-text, which I believe to be a much better version of this text.

Title PagePrefaceContents Introduction Translation. Ephesus. Ephesus (/ˈɛfəsəs/;[1] Greek: Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Turkish: Efes) was an ancient Greek city[2][3] on the coast of Ionia, three kilometers southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital[4][5] by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. According to estimates Ephesus had a population of 33,600 to 56,000 people in the Roman period, making it the third largest city of Roman Asia Minor after Sardis and Alexandria Troas.[6] The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. History[edit] Neolithic age[edit] Bronze Age[edit] Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill.

Period of Greek migrations[edit] Archaic period[edit] Theater. AncientWeb.org: The Ancient Worlds Great Civilizations. Cartouche. Of the five royal titularies it was the prenomen, the throne name, also referred to as the, and the "Son of Ra" titulary,[3] the so-called nomen, the name given at birth, which were enclosed by a cartouche.[4] At times amulets were given the form of a cartouche displaying the name of a king and placed in tombs.

Such items are often important to archaeologists for dating the tomb and its contents.[5] Cartouches were formerly only worn by Pharaohs. The oval surrounding their name was meant to protect them from evil spirits in life and after death. The cartouche has become a symbol representing good luck and protection from evil .[6] Egyptians believed that one who had their name recorded somewhere would not disappear after death. A cartouche attached to a coffin satisfied this requirement.[7] There were periods in Egyptian history when people refrained from inscribing these amulets with a name, for fear they might fall into somebody's hands conferring power over the bearer of the name.[8]

Egyptian hieroglyphs.