Stewardship. Stewardship is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and management of resources.
The concepts of stewardship can be applied to the environment, economics, health, property, information , theology, etc. History of the term See also the definition in international standard ISO 20121 - Event sustainability management system - Requirements with guidance for use; par. 3.20: "responsibility for sustainable development shared by all those whose actions affect environmental performance. economic activity, and social progress, reflected as both a value and a practice by individuals, organisations. communities, and competent authorities.
" See also References Jump up ^ Chapin, F. Trust law. The trustee may be either an individual, a company, or a public body.
There may be a single trustee or multiple co-trustees. The trust is governed by the terms under which it was created. In most jurisdictions, this requires a contractual trust agreement or deed. History The Lord Chancellor would consider it "unconscionable" that the legal owner could go back on his word and deny the claims of the Crusader (the "true" owner).
Significance Although trusts are often associated with intrafamily wealth transfers, they have become very important in American capital markets, particularly through pension funds (essentially always trusts) and mutual funds (often trusts). Rule of law. The rule of law (also known as nomocracy) primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, especially as a constraint upon behavior, including behavior of government officials. The phrase can be traced back to the 16th century, and it was popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A.
V. Dicey. The concept was familiar to ancient philosophers such as Aristotle, who wrote "Law should govern". Rule of law implies that every citizen is subject to the law, including law makers themselves. It stands in contrast to the idea that the ruler is above the law, for example by divine right. Despite wide use by politicians, judges and academics, the rule of law has been described as "an exceedingly elusive notion" giving rise to a "rampant divergence of understandings ... everyone is for it but have contrasting convictions about what it is. " Accountability. In governance, accountability has expanded beyond the basic definition of "being called to account for one's actions". It is frequently described as an account-giving relationship between individuals, e.g. "A is accountable to B when A is obliged to inform B about A’s (past or future) actions and decisions, to justify them, and to suffer punishment in the case of eventual misconduct". Accountability cannot exist without proper accounting practices; in other words, an absence of accounting means an absence of accountability.
Environmental justice. The term environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
The term has two distinct uses. The first and more common usage describes a social movement in the United States whose focus is on the fair distribution of environmental benefits and burdens. Equal opportunity. Thinkers often use the metaphor of a race to describe equality of opportunity.
Photo: a sprinter at the starting block. Differing political viewpoints People with differing political viewpoints often see the concept differently. The meaning of equal opportunity is debated in fields such as political philosophy, sociology and psychology. Property. Enclosure. Intellectual property.
Intellectual property (IP) rights are the legally recognized exclusive rights to creations of the mind. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Although many of the legal principles governing intellectual property rights have evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The British Statute of Anne (1710) and the Statute of Monopolies (1624) are now seen as the origins of copyright and patent law respectively. History Types
Property rights (economics) Property rights are theoretical constructs in economics for determining how a resource is used and owned.
Resources can be owned (the subject of property) by individuals, associations or governments. Property rights can be viewed as an attribute of an economic good. This attribute has four broad components and is often referred to as a bundle of rights: Traditional knowledge. Traditional knowledge (TK), indigenous knowledge (IK), traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.
Indigenous rights. Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples. This includes not only the most basic human rights of physical survival and integrity, but also the preservation of their land, language, religion, and other elements of cultural heritage that are a part of their existence as a people. This can be used as an expression for advocacy of social organizations or form a part of the national law in establishing the relation between a government and the right of self-determination among the indigenous people living within its borders, or in international law as a protection against violation by actions of governments or groups of private interests.
Indigenous land rights. Indigenous land rights are the rights of indigenous peoples to land, either individually or collectively. Land and resource-related rights are of fundamental importance to indigenous peoples for a range of reasons, including: the religious significance of the land, self-determination, identity, and economic factors. Land is a major economic asset. The majority of indigenous peoples living in forest areas depend on the natural resources of their lands to fulfill their subsistence needs. Portal:Human rights. Natural and legal rights. Social rights. Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate standard of living, right to health and the right to science and culture.
Economic, social and cultural rights are recognised and protected in international and regional human rights instruments. Member states have a legal obligation to respect, protect and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights and are expected to take "progressive action" towards their fulfilment. Social safety net. Cash transfersFood-based programs such as supplementary feeding programs and food stamps, vouchers, and couponsIn-kind transfers such as school supplies and uniformsConditional cash transfersPrice subsidies for food, electricity, or public transportPublic worksFee waivers and exemptions for health care, schooling and utilities On average, spending on safety nets accounts for 1 to 2 percent of GDP across developing and transition countries, though sometimes much less or much more.
In the last decade[when?] , a visible growing expertise in various areas of safety nets has taken place. However, even though an increasing number of safety net programs are extremely well thought out, correctly implemented, and demonstrably effective, many others face — and create — serious challenges. General overview Safety net programs can play four roles in development policy:- The safety net as a whole should provide coverage to three rather different groups:- Welfare. Welfare is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for all citizens, sometimes referred to as public aid. In most developed countries welfare is largely provided by the government, and to a lesser extent, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations. The welfare state expands on this concept to include services such as universal healthcare and unemployment insurance. History Distributing alms to the poor, abbey of Port-Royal des Champs c. 1710.
In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the 'congiaria' or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food. Social justice. Social justice is the ability people have to realize their potential in the society where they live. Classically, "justice" (especially corrective justice or distributive justice) referred to ensuring that individuals both fulfilled their societal roles, and received what was due from society.