Author Affiliations Edited by Svante Pääbo, Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, and approved August 3, 2011 (received for review May 10, 2011) Abstract Recent studies have revealed that 2–3% of the genome of non-Africans might come from Neanderthals, suggesting a more complex scenario of modern human evolution than previously anticipated. In this paper, we use a model of admixture during a spatial expansion to study the hybridization of Neanderthals with modern humans during their spread out of Africa. Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgression
The Animal Connection and Human Evolution (Pat Shipman) - Academia.edu Current Anthropology V olum e 51, Number 4, Augus t 2010 Tuesday Jun 29 2010 11:58 AM/CA300269/2010/51/4 /hensleys/ritterd/ritterd/Q C1 complete/use-graphics/narrow/default/ (Chaney 2008). In both the United States and Australia, 63% of households include pets, compared with 43% of British and 20% of Japanese households. In the United States, the proportion of households with pets is larger than those with children. The number of dogs in Japan exceeds that of chil- dren under the age of 12.
Our Neandertal Brethren: Why They Were Not a Separate Species According to the late Harvard University biologist Ernst W. Mayr, the greatest evolutionary theorist since Charles Darwin, “species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” Reproductive isolation is the key to understanding how new species form, and many types of barriers can divide a population and split it into two different groups: geographic (such as a mountain range, desert, ocean or river), morphological (a change in coloration, body type or reproductive organs), behavioral (a change in breeding season, mating calls or courtship actions), and others. After isolation, if members of the split populations encounter one another and cannot produce viable offspring that can themselves later successfully interbreed and produce viable offspring (hybrids such as mules are infertile), then these two populations constitute two different species.
The Neandertal Genome
Ancient DNA From Siberia Fingers a Possible New Human Lineage --