Current Events: Red Sludge. Last week a massive spill of red sludge from an aluminum production company in Hungary killed several people and destroyed a tremendous amount of property.
Here’s a look at what this red sludge is and why it’s so bad. Bauxite ore The sludge is a byproduct of a process used to extract aluminaa precursor of aluminum metal from a type of ore called bauxite. Bauxite contains several things besides alumina, including silicon dioxiderelated to sand and glass, iron oxides'rust', and titanium dioxide. To separate alumina from these other components, the bauxite is crushed up and added to a boiling hot solution of sodium hydroxideChemical formula: NaOH. This sludge has a reddish color – probably largely due to all the iron oxides (remember, that is essentially what rust is). As you might imagine, this sludge isn’t very pleasant. River of Toxic Sludge Flows in Hungary: NASA Satellite Photos. Photos: NASA Earth Observatory The river of sludge that flooded across the Hungarian countryside last week quickly became a full-throttle environmental catastrophe, killing eight people -- four of them drowned -- and doing untold damage to local ecosystems and private property.
It eventually reached the Danube River, one of the main waterways in Europe. The toxic sludge, a byproduct of the aluminum manufacturing process, is striking for its orange-red coloration, which is even more striking when seen from space. NASA satellites took some images of the disaster, one of which is seen above. Here's another one that shows the spill in the context of the entire region: Here's NASA explaining the images: On October 9, 2010, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image of the area. The sludge forms a red-orange streak running west from the plant. Site Information.
This site is located at 5701 NW Lower River Road, on the north shore of the Columbia River, approximately three miles northwest of downtown Vancouver, Washington.
Read the 2015 Periodic Review for information on the current status of contamination at the site. Alcoa constructed and operated an aluminum smelter on the western portion of the site starting in 1940. Between 1944 and 1970, a number of operations were added to the facility to make aluminum into finished goods such as wire, rod, and extrusions. Alcoa operated the entire facility for approximately 45 years. From 1963 - 1984, Columbia Marine Lines, followed by Crowley Marine Services Inc., leased property (The Crowley Parcel) from Alcoa and operated a marine repair facility west of the smelter. In 1985, Alcoa began cleaning up and selling individual land parcels and operations. Today, the Port of Vancouver owns the former smelter site, stormwater lagoons, and a small sanitary sewer plant. Cleanup Actions. Which is greener: Glass bottles, plastic bottles, or aluminum cans? - philly-archives. Glass bottles, for instance, are 40 percent lighter today than they were 20 years ago, which means it takes less fuel and produces fewer emissions to transport them.
Ditto plastic. A few years ago an empty half-liter water bottle weighed 22 grams. Now, it's 8.5. (Soda bottles are heavier so they can withstand the carbonation.) As for cans, today's models have a carbon footprint 43 percent lower than those in 1993. But you still want to make the best choice. In the absence of an endlessly patient academic willing to spend untold hours on an independent life-cycle analysis, I issued a challenge to the three industries. "This is your moment," I said. Ladies first, so we'll start with Lynn Bragg, president of the Glass Packaging Institute. First on her list of eco benefits is that a glass bottle can be recycled endlessly into other glass bottles.
Adding recycled glass to the mix means manufacturers' furnaces can run at lower temperatures. Check out the shapes, too. Distrust bisphenol A? 26 mars 2015 Luc Barthassat. En suisse l economie verte attendra des jours meilleurs. Plastique en mer. Treize associations faîtières lancent la charge contre l économie verte. INCINERATION DES ORDURESLes déchets de plastiques, l'or noir de l'EuropeSelon une étude des producteurs européens de matières plastiques, l'incinération des déchets améliore la combustion et accroît la possibilité de produire de l'énergie. Würzburg, en Basse-Franconie.
C'est dans cette ville de 127000habitants, sur les bords du Main, entre Francfort et Nuremberg, que l'APME (l'association des producteurs européens de matières plastiques) a décidé de prouver que l'incinération des déchets de plastiques est loin d'être une hérésie. D'octobre 1993 à janvier 1994, un programme de recherche européen s'est déroulé à l'incinérateur de Würzburg. Son but: déterminer l'impact d'une augmentation de la part des déchets de plastiques dans l'incinération des ordures ménagères.
Un programme de 1,2million de deutsche Mark. L'idée de départ est simple.