Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren , the Ba , the Ka , the Sheut , and the Ib . In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha , occasionally a plural haw , meaning approximately sum of bodily parts). The other souls were aakhu, khaibut, and khat. Ib (heart) An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the Ib ( jb ), or heart . The Ib [ 1 ] or metaphysical heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the child's mother's heart, taken at conception. [ 2 ]
5.9 kiloyear event The 5.9 kiloyear event was one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene Epoch . It occurred around 3900 BC (5,900 years BP ), ending the Neolithic Subpluvial and probably initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert. Thus, it also triggered worldwide migration to river valleys , such as from central North Africa to the Nile valley , which eventually led to the emergence of the first complex , highly organised , state -level societies in the 4th millennium BCE . [ 1 ] It is associated with the last round of the Sahara pump theory .
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Imhotep Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre Another image of the same statue Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef , Im-hotep , or Ii-em-Hotep ; called Imuthes (Ἰμούθης) by the Greeks), fl. 27th century BC (circa 2650–2600 BC) (Egyptian ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥātap meaning "the one who comes in peace, is with peace"), was an Egyptian polymath , [ 1 ] who served under the Third Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of the sun god Ra (or Re) at Heliopolis . He is considered to be the first architect [ 2 ] and engineer [ 3 ] and physician in early history [ 4 ] though two other good physicians, Hesy-Ra and Merit-Ptah lived around the same time.
Hatshepsut For other Egyptian ladies called Maatkare see Maatkare Fragmentary statue of Hatshepsut, quartz diorite, c. 1498–1483 BC Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Hatshepsut ( pron.: / h æ t ˈ ʃ ɛ p s ʊ t / ; [ 3 ] also Hatchepsut ; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies ; [ 4 ] 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed." [ 5 ] Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmes.
Thinis Thinis or This ( Egyptian : Tjenu ) was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt . Thinis is, as yet, undiscovered but well attested to by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho , who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy , a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes (or Narmer ), united Egypt and was its first pharaoh . Thinis began a steep decline in importance from Dynasty III , when the capital was relocated to Memphis .
Located about 100 km south of modern Cairo , Meidum or Maidum ( Arabic : ميدوم ) is the location of a large pyramid , and several large mud-brick mastabas . [ edit ] Pyramid The structure of the pyramid Passageway in the Meidum Pyramid The pyramid at Meidum is thought to have been originally built for Huni , the last pharaoh of the Third Dynasty and was continued by Sneferu . The architect was a successor to the famous Imhotep , the inventor of the stone built pyramid. Meidum
Detail of the massive corbel -vaulted ceiling of the main burial chamber The south face of the Red Pyramid Entry to the Red Pyramid The Red Pyramid , also called the North Pyramid , is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis . Named for the rusty reddish hue of its stones, it is also the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafra at Giza . At the time of its completion, it was the tallest man-made structure in the world . Red Pyramid
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha ( Ottoman Turkish : محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا ; Arabic : محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC : Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā ; Albanian : Mehmet Ali Pasha ; Turkish : Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa ; [ 2 ] 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who became Wāli , and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan . Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Mount Sinai Mount Sinai ( Arabic : طور سيناء Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or جبل موسى Jabal Mūsá ; Egyptian Arabic : Gabal Mūsa , lit. "Moses' Mountain" or "Mount Moses"; Hebrew : הר סיני Har Sinai ), also known as Mount Horeb , is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is the traditional and most accepted identification of the Biblical Mount Sinai .