Evolution of Cooperation
E. O. Wilson’s Theory of Everything - Magazine. At 82, the famed biologist E.
O. Wilson arrived in Mozambique last summer with a modest agenda—save a ravaged park; identify its many undiscovered species; create a virtual textbook that will revolutionize the teaching of biology. Wilson’s newest theory is more ambitious still. It could transform our understanding of human nature—and provide hope for our stewardship of the planet. Howard Rheingold on collaboration. The Origin and Evolution of Cultures (Evolution and Cognition) (9780195181456): Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson. VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization.
Mark Pagel: How language transformed humanity. Dunbar's number. Dunbar's number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships.
These are relationships in which an individual knows who each person is and how each person relates to every other person. This number was first proposed by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who found a correlation between primate brain size and average social group size. By using the average human brain size and extrapolating from the results of primates, he proposed that humans can only comfortably maintain 150 stable relationships. Proponents assert that numbers larger than this generally require more restrictive rules, laws, and enforced norms to maintain a stable, cohesive group. Robin Dunbar. Professor Robin Ian MacDonald Dunbar (born 28 June 1947) is a British anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist and a specialist in primate behaviour. He is currently head of the Social and Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford and is best known for formulating Dunbar's number, a measurement of the "cognitive limit to the number of individuals with whom any one person can maintain stable relationships". Education
Symbiogenesis. Symbiogenesis is the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism.
The idea originated with Konstantin Mereschkowsky in his 1926 book Symbiogenesis and the Origin of Species, which proposed that chloroplasts originate from cyanobacteria captured by a protozoan. Ivan Wallin also supported this concept in his book "Symbionticism and the Origins of Species". He suggested that bacteria might be the cause of the origin of species, and that species creation may occur through endosymbiosis. SuperCooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed (9781439100189): Martin Nowak, Roger Highfield.
Children, not chimps, prefer collaboration: Humans like to work together in solving tasks - chimps don't. Recent studies have shown that chimpanzees possess many of the cognitive prerequisites necessary for humanlike collaboration.
Cognitive abilities, however, might not be all that differs between chimpanzees and humans when it comes to cooperation. Researchers from the MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig and the MPI for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen have now discovered that when all else is equal, human children prefer to work together in solving a problem, rather than solve it on their own. Towards Realistic Models for Evolution of Cooperation. The five major approaches to answering how cooperation emerges and becomes stable in nature (Group Selection, Kinship Theory, Direct Reciprocity, Indirect Reciprocity, and Social Learning) might be improved by not presuming asexual and non-overlapping generations, simultaneous-play for every interaction, dyadic interactions, mostly predetermined and mistake-free behavior, discrete actions (cooperate or defect), and the trivial role of social structure and social learning of individuals.
Keywords trust, reputation, reciprocity, evolution, cultural evolution, cooperation, competition, bioeconomy, altruism, agent-based model.