Evolution of Cooperation
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Dunbar's number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships .
Robin Ian MacDonald Dunbar (born June 28, 1947) [ 2 ] [ 3 ] is a British anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist and a specialist in primate behaviour. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] He is currently Professor of Evolutionary Psychology and head of the Social and Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford .
Symbiogenesis is the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism. The idea originated with Konstantin Mereschkowsky in his 1926 book Symbiogenesis and the Origin of Species , which proposed that chloroplasts originate from cyanobacteria captured by a protozoan . [ 1 ] Ivan Wallin also supported this concept in his book "Symbionticism and the Origins of Species". He suggested that bacteria might be the cause of the origin of species, and that species creation may occur through endosymbiosis.
Children, not chimps, prefer collaboration: Humans like to work together in solving tasks - chimps don'tOct. 17, 2011 — Recent studies have shown that chimpanzees possess many of the cognitive prerequisites necessary for humanlike collaboration. Cognitive abilities, however, might not be all that differs between chimpanzees and humans when it comes to cooperation. Researchers from the MPI for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig and the MPI for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen have now discovered that when all else is equal, human children prefer to work together in solving a problem, rather than solve it on their own.
The five major approaches to answering how cooperation emerges and becomes stable in nature (Group Selection, Kinship Theory, Direct Reciprocity, Indirect Reciprocity, and Social Learning) might be improved by not presuming asexual and non-overlapping generations, simultaneous-play for every interaction, dyadic interactions, mostly predetermined and mistake-free behavior, discrete actions (cooperate or defect), and the trivial role of social structure and social learning of individuals. Keywords trust , reputation , reciprocity , evolution , cultural evolution , cooperation , competition , bioeconomy , altruism , agent-based model