Digital Photographs. Quality and Functionality Factors for Still Images. Content Categories >> Still Image | Sound | Textual | Moving Image | Web Archive | Datasets | Geospatial | Generic Scope The factors discussed here apply to still images that convey their meaning in visual terms, e.g. pictorial images, photographs, posters, graphs, diagrams, documentary architectural drawings. Formats for such images may be bitmapped (sometimes called raster), vector, or some combination of the two. A bitmapped image is an array of dots (usually called pixels, from picture elements, when referring to screen display), the type of image produced by a digital camera or a scanner. Vector images are made up of scalable objects—lines, curves, and shapes—defined in mathematical terms, often with typographic insertions.
Graphic design software may be primarily of the paint variety and intended to produce bitmapped images or primarily of the draw variety and intended to produce vector images. For specialized professional applications, clarity is often of great importance. Additional Reading. Resources - Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative. January 28, 2010 The successful creation and maintenance of digital images depends on a complex network of formal standards and consensus-based best-practice guidelines. This resource list focuses on technical standards. The term “standards” is often used rather loosely, but in this guideline, it refers to voluntary standards developed by industry, such as Adobe; by standards bodies, such as the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM); or by Standards Developing Organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
The ISO/IEC Information Center is one source of information about the standards process; another excellent reference on how standards are defined and categorized can be found on Wikipedia. This document is intended to provide an overview of standards related to the creation and maintenance of digital images. University Library - Digital Imaging Guidelines. Digital Imaging Guidelines Scanning and Saving Master Images Here are some basic guidelines for converting original documents, images, manuscripts, etc. into digital master images, from which derivative images can be made for various presentations. Black and White Images (text, line drawings) For images and illustrations with no tonality (only blacks and whites) 600 dpi, 1-bit or bitonal TIFF images 600 dpi will achieve an archival replication of the original. Sized and saved at 1:1 scale to the dimensions of the original page saved uncompressed or with lossless compression (LZW for TIFF images, or JPEG 2000) Grayscale Images For covers, photos, and illustrations with tonality printed in black and white Color Images For covers, and meaningful text or illustrations printed in color 300 dpi, 24-bit color TIFF images(This dpi can change depending on the level of fidelity to the original image required.
Multiple Page Documents Follow guidelines above for page content. IrfanView - Official Homepage - one of the most popular viewers worldwide. DPC Technology Watch Reports: ISSN 2048-7916. The DPC Technology Watch Report series is intended as an advanced introduction to specific issues for those charged with establishing or running services for long term access. They identify and track developments in IT, standards and tools which are critical to digital preservation activities. They are commissioned by experts on these developments and are thoroughly scrutinised by peers before being released. Authors are asked to provide reports that are informed, current, concise and balanced; lower the barriers to participation in digital preservation; derive from the needs of the Coalitions members; and are of utility to members and non-members alike.
There are currently 15 reports published in the series: Three more are currently in development under the auspices of Neil Beagrie as principal investigator and commissioning editor. File Format Migration. Formats are for saving When an image file is saved, all the bits in the file need to be stacked up in some way so they can be decoded. A file format is a formula for stacking up those bits so various programs can understand them. There quite a few different images formats in use, and many of the variations are slight, such as the differences between CR2 files produced by different Canon cameras. Some of the differences are large and significant, such as that between a TIFF file and a JPEG file. If an image can be opened, it can be saved to a new format. Know what you've got Unfortunately, there's no one who can monitor what file types you have in your collection except you.