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Aflatoxines : Réglementation et gestion du risque

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AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 31/12/14 Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand. Aflatoxin B1 is a secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 31/12/14 Determination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand

It can be formed in commodities before and after harvest. This mycotoxin possesses a variety of toxic effects, potent carcinogen to both animal and human health. Aflatoxin B1 is generally found in feed and food stuff, such as cereal and all products derived from cereals, including processed cereals since it has been proven to be at least partly resistant to food processing methods. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the possibility of contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food products in Thailand.

The 100 food samples were purchased from markets around Bangkok. Key words: Mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, carcinogen.

Le projet AFLASTOP

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 12/08/14 Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities. Aflatoxins are a group of polyketide mycotoxins that are produced mainly by members of the genus Aspergillus.

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 12/08/14 Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

Production of these toxic secondary metabolites is closely related to fungal development (Keller et al., 2005; Jamali et al., 2012). Contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by aflatoxins poses enormous economic and serious health concerns because these chemicals are highly carcinogenic and can directly influence the structure of DNA. The resulting genetic defects can lead to fetal misdevelopment and miscarriages; aflatoxins are also known to suppress immune systems (Razzaghi-Abyaneh et al., 2013). In a global context, aflatoxin contamination is a constant concern between the 35N and 35S latitude where developing countries are mainly situated. With expanding boundaries of developing countries, aflatoxin contamination has become a persistent problem to those emerging areas (Shams-Ghahfarokhi et al., 2013).

Conflict of Interest Statement Acknowledgment. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 21/07/14 Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk. Introduction The relatively recent outbreak of aflatoxins risk contamination in Europe has driven the EU researchers to investigate on this topic usually confined to tropical and sub-tropical areas.

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 21/07/14 Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

In this respect, aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic fungi are by far the most serious, dangerous and studied mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites synthesized by several Aspergillus species and are highly toxic to humans and animals when ingested at high concentrations. They may cause severe liver damage accompanied by jaundice, hepatitis and death, especially in developing countries (Probst et al., 2007).

In addition, they are genotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic for both humans and animals. Journal of Applied Chemistry Volume 2014 (2014), Methods for Detection of Aflatoxins in Agricultural Food Crops. African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(5) pp.459-466,4March,2011 Aflatoxin control and prevention strategies in key crops of Sub-Saharan Africa. UNIVERSITE SIDI MOHAMMED BEN ABDELLAH 30/10/04 Thèse en ligne : Détermination des mycotoxines dans les aliments et étude de la réduction des aflatoxines par les bactéries lactiques isolées dse ferments panairse traditionnels. CGIAR - 2014 - Aflatoxin literature synthesis and risk mapping: Special emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY RESEARCH 18/08/10 Quantification of aflatoxin B1 in ready-to-use food thickeners in South-east geo-political zone in Nigeria.

JOURNAL OF STORED PRODUCTS AND POSTHARVEST RESEARCH - JUNE 2015 - Aflatoxin management in Northern Ghana: Current prevalence and priority strategies in maize (Zea mays L) The production and utilization of maize have increased tremendously across all regions of Ghana in recent times.

JOURNAL OF STORED PRODUCTS AND POSTHARVEST RESEARCH - JUNE 2015 - Aflatoxin management in Northern Ghana: Current prevalence and priority strategies in maize (Zea mays L)

However, aflatoxin (AF) contamination in grain maize has remained a critical food safety concern. The study was conducted in 6 districts in the Upper East and Upper West regions of Ghana to assess farmers’ knowledge on AF, and determine AF levels under farmer storage conditions. A total of 240 respondents from 24 communities were covered using a structured questionnaire, and 240 maize samples were obtained for AF analysis. All the samples were collected within 2 to 6 weeks after harvest for AF analysis using the Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. Overall, 78% of the respondents were aware of AF although majority (68.1%) did not perceive AF as a major food safety issue. Key words: Aflatoxins, food safety, maize, on-farm storage, consumer perception.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT - DEC 2014 - Farmer perceptions of aflatoxin management strategies in lower Eastern Kenya. MERID 23/11/16 Le CTA et le Partenariat pour la lutte contre l’aflatoxine en Afrique (PACA) lancent un document de travail sur l’amélioration de la base de données probantes sur la contamination par l’aflatoxine et l’exposition à ce produit en Afrique. Le CTA et le Partenariat pour la lutte contre l’aflatoxine en Afrique (PACA) lancent un document de travail sur l’amélioration de la base de données probantes sur la contamination par l’aflatoxine et l’exposition à ce produit en Afrique.

MERID 23/11/16 Le CTA et le Partenariat pour la lutte contre l’aflatoxine en Afrique (PACA) lancent un document de travail sur l’amélioration de la base de données probantes sur la contamination par l’aflatoxine et l’exposition à ce produit en Afrique.

CTA_INT 21/11/16 CTA and the Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA) launch a working paper on Improving the Evidence Base on Aflatoxin Contamination and Exposure in Africa. Aflatoxins are highly poisonous compounds produced by the Aspergillus fungus, which occur in soil.

CTA_INT 21/11/16 CTA and the Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA) launch a working paper on Improving the Evidence Base on Aflatoxin Contamination and Exposure in Africa

Several of the food crops grown in Africa, such as cassava, chili, groundnuts, maize, rice, sorghum, teff, and major cash crops such as coffee, cocoa, tea and sugarcane have been found to be contaminated with these dangerous toxins. They have also been found in processed foods such as peanut butter and foods from animal sources like egg and milk.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-005720-16 Aflatoxin content of almonds. SIVEMP VENETO 13/04/16 Aflatossine in mais e latte, intensificati i controlli ufficiali sui livelli massimi. Sequestri di Asl e Nas anche in Veneto. Si sono intensificati i controlli ufficiali per la ricerca di aflatossine nel latte e nei mangimi.

SIVEMP VENETO 13/04/16 Aflatossine in mais e latte, intensificati i controlli ufficiali sui livelli massimi. Sequestri di Asl e Nas anche in Veneto

Le recenti condizioni climatiche, che si sono verificate in Italia nel corso dell’estate 2015, caratterizzate da una prolungata siccità, hanno determinato una accresciuta contaminazione da aflatossine nelle produzioni di mais e nelle produzioni di latte che, in alcuni casi, ha superato i limiti fissati dalla normativa comunitaria. L’incremento di aflatossine nel mais può avere ripercussioni di natura sanitaria sia dirette, sul mais ad uso alimentare, che indirette, attraverso l’uso dello stesso nei mangimi e la conseguente presenza di aflatossina M1 nel latte, oltre i livelli consentiti.

La Regione Veneto con una nota dell’8 aprile ha trasmesso ai servizi veterinari delle Usl la circolare della Direzione generale per l’Igiene e Sicurezza degli alimenti del Ministero che ha disposto una intensificazione dei controlli. FOOD MICROBIOLOGY - 2014 - Rapid detection of aflatoxin producing fungi in food by real-time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification. JOUE 14/08/14 RÈGLEMENT D'EXÉCUTION (UE) N° 884/2014 DE LA COMMISSION du 13 août 2014 fixant des conditions particulières applicables à l'importation de certains aliments pour animaux et de certaines denrées alimentaires venant de certains pays tiers en r.

FSA 12/09/14 Aflatoxin contamination of products of non-animal origin under Regulation (EU) No 884/2014. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 10/04/14 Aflatoxins and safe storage. Introduction Aflatoxins (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) are widely recognized as a major health problem, especially in hot, humid countries.

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 10/04/14 Aflatoxins and safe storage

This is a particular serious problem in such crops as maize, rice, peanuts, tree nuts, and dried fruits. Aflatoxin production normally occurs in the field, particularly when stimulated by drought, stress, and high temperatures or during prolonged drying. Aflatoxin-producing molds grow exponentially in conventional multi-month storage as a result of a combination of heat and high humidity (Hell et al., 2010). Figure 1 (Villers et al., 2008) shows the graphic relationship between mold growth and relative humidity at equilibrium. Figure 1. Table 1. In East Africa post-harvest losses in maize, as shown in Figure 2, often reach 25%, or more (World Bank Report, 2011). IFPRI - NOV 2013 - Codex Standards: A Global Tool for Aflatoxin Management.

Aflatoxines : Résultats des plans de surveillance

Sélection de derniers rapports OAV traitant des aflatoxines. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2013) 2(5): 373-377 Analysis of feed samples for aflatoxin B1 contamination by HPTLC - a validated method. INTECH 21/10/11 Aflatoxins - Detection, Measurement and Control. Edited by Irineo Torres-Pacheco, ISBN 978-953-307-711-6, 376 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published October 21, 2011 under CC BY 3.0 licenseDOI: 10.5772/1865 This book is divided into three sections.

INTECH 21/10/11 Aflatoxins - Detection, Measurement and Control

The section called Aflatoxin Contamination discusses the importance that this subject has for a country like the case of China and mentions examples that illustrate the ubiquity of aflatoxins in various commodities The section Measurement and Analysis, describes the concept of measurement and analysis of aflatoxins from a historical prespective, the legal, and the state of the art in methodologies and techniques. Finally the section entitled Approaches for Prevention and Control of Aflatoxins on Crops and on Different Foods, describes actions to prevent and mitigate the genotoxic effect of one of the most conspicuous aflatoxins, AFB1.

IFPRI/CGIAR - NOV 2013 - Aflatoxins : finding solutions for improved food safety. PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-014366-13 Aflatoxins. Following reports from farmers associations on the aflatoxins contained in animal feedstuffs, maximum permissible levels of aflatoxins has become a topic of discussion.

PARLEMENT EUROPEEN - Réponse à question P-014366-13 Aflatoxins

Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi of the genus Aspergillus which grow on a large number of vegetable substrates such as cereal crops (particularly maize) and semi‐oleaginous crops (such a peanuts), spices, grain, nuts and dried fruit, both during growing and at harvesting and on storage. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is especially toxic, which is why the EU has set maximum permissible limits for it as a precautionary measure. Those limits have been set both for foodstuffs intended for humans and for the the various raw materials used in the production of animal feeds. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 27/02/14 The microRNAs as potential biomarkers for predicting the onset of aflatoxin exposure in human beings: a review.

TEXAS A&M UNIVERISTY - 2013 - Managing risks associated with feeding aflatoxin contaminated feed. REGLEMENT (CE) N° 1881/2006 DE LA COMMISSION du 19 décembre 2006 portant fixation de teneurs maximales pour certains contaminant. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 13/11/13 A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future. 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals.

Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. International Journal of Advance Research, Volume 1, Issue 4, April 2013 ANALYTICAL METHODS IN DETERMINING AFLATOXIN B1 IN FOOD.

International Journal of Advance Research, Volume 1, Issue 4, April 2013 ANALYTICAL METHODS IN DETERMINING AFLATOXIN B1 IN FOOD MATERIALS – guatemalt

JDLE 31/07/13 L’arachide indienne sous contrôle accru de l’UE (aflatoxines) Un produit sous haute surveillance L’arachide indienne constitue l’une des denrées alimentaires d’origine non animale les moins souvent conformes aux normes de l’Union européenne, avec 44,1% des échantillons analysés dépassant le seuil autorisé d’aflatoxines, ce qui lui vaut un durcissement des contrôles. Au-delà des contrôles de routine, certains aliments d’origine non animale font l’objet de contrôles renforcés à leur entrée dans l’UE, en raison d’un risque sanitaire spécifique. Et ce en vertu du règlement n°669/2009, qui prévoit que les denrées en question entrent toutes par des points d’entrée désignés [1] et qu’une proportion d’entre elles (10%, 20% ou 50% selon l’acuité du risque) soient analysées de manière physique ou biologique.

L’Inde est également mise en cause pour ses gombos et ses feuilles de curry, dont respectivement 22,8% et 35,4% des lots analysés ne respectaient pas les normes en matière de résidus de pesticides. AFSCA 25/03/13 Circulaire relative au contrôle de l’aflatoxine B1 dans le maïs destiné à l’alimentation animale et à la consomma. CODEX ALIMENTARIUS 06/10/05 CODE D'USAGES POUR LA PRÉVENTION ET LA RÉDUCTION DE LA CONTAMINATION DES FRUITS À COQUE PAR LES AFLA. CODEX ALIMENTARIUS 08/12/04 Nouvelle norme : Code d'Usages pour la Prevention et la Reduction de la Contamination des Arachides. CODEX - 2008 - CODE D'USAGES POUR LA PRÉVENTION ET LA RÉDUCTION DE LA CONTAMINATION PAR LES AFLATOXINES DES FIGUES SÈCHES. FSA 14/09/06 EC strengthens aflatoxin controls. Le site de l'unité de mycotoxicologie de l'Ecole Vétérinaire de Toulouse.

Arrêté du 13 août 2007 portant abrogation d'arrêtés fixant des modes de prélèvement d'échantillons et des méthodes d'analyse pou. EFSA 01/03/07 Avis du groupe scientifique CONTAM concernant l'aggravation eventuelle des risques pour la sante du consommateur p. Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel Question number: EFSA-Q-2006-174 Adopted: 25 January 2007 Published: 01 March 2007 Last updated: 01 March 2007. This version replaces the previous one/s. Aflatoxins are produced by moulds that are especially found in areas with hot, humid climates. They are most likely to contaminate tree nuts, ground nuts, figs and other dried fruits, spices, crude vegetable oils, cocoa beans and maize. Because aflatoxins are considered to be genotoxic and carcinogenic, it is not possible to identify an intake without risk, and the European Union (EU) introduced regulations for these toxins in 1998, at levels considered to be as low as reasonably achievable.

EFSA 02/03/07 Aflatoxines dans les aliments: L’EFSA évalue les nouvelles teneurs maximales proposées pour les amandes, les noise. Nouvelle 2 mars 2007 Les aflatoxines sont naturellement présentes dans les aliments tels que les noix, les figues et autres fruits secs, les épices et les huiles végétales crues. DG SANCO 05/11/10 food safety - Food Contaminants - Sampling, Analysis and European Union Reference LaboratoriesGuidance documen. DG SANCO 05/11/10 food safety - Food Contaminants - AflatoxinsSafeguard decisions as regards aflatoxins Guidance document for co. Legislation: Maximum levels of aflatoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1) are laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 165/2010. Provisions for methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of mycotoxins including aflatoxins are laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 178/2010 Safeguard decisions as regards aflatoxins.

DG SANCO 30/11/10 food safety - Food Contaminants - Sampling, Analysis and European Union Reference LaboratoriesGuidance documen. DG SANCO 30/11/10 food safety - Food Contaminants - AflatoxinsGuidance document for competent authorities for the control of com. EUROPE - JRC - Aflatoxins in pistachios - New reference materials for food-safety testing.