Mental Imagery > Dual Coding and Common Coding Theories of Memory. The Dual Coding Theory of memory was initially proposed by Paivio (1971) in order to explain the powerful mnemonic effects of imagery that he and others had uncovered, but its implications for cognitive theory go far beyond these findings.
It has inspired an enormous amount of controversy and experimental research in psychology, and played a very large role in stimulating the resurgence of scientific and philosophical interest in imagery. The more intricate details of Dual Coding Theory are beyond our scope here, but the core idea is very simple and intuitive. Paivio proposes that the human mind operates with two distinct classes of mental representation (or “codes”), verbal representations and mental images, and that human memory thus comprises two functionally independent (although interacting) systems or stores, verbal memory and image memory. The laboratory evidence favoring the theory goes well beyond the original context of verbal learning experiments, however.
Cover image cc licence. How to Build Your Creative Confidence. It’s a false construct to divide the world into the creatives and the non-creatives, says IDEO founder David Kelley.
He helps business people “turn fear into familiarity, and they surprise themselves. That transformation is amazing.” Image courtesy of Flickr user opensourceway. One bad childhood experience where our creativity was mocked can inhibit us as adults. It can plant the idea that we’re practical people, not creative people, and can grow into a full-fledged “truth” about ourselves later. But creativity can be coaxed out of people, if approached the right way.
That’s according to David Kelley, who is certainly one to know. In a recent TED talk, “How to Build Your Creative Confidence,” Kelley explained his thinking about creativity (a video and a transcript are at the TED site). We can be inhibited by fear of judgment. We can break through phobias with “guided mastery.” David Kelley A little confidence in creativity leads to a lot of confidence in everything else. City Brights: Howard Rheingold. I opened my first class session this semester by projecting the word ATTENTION on a screen and telling my students that class begins when they turn off their telephones, close their laptops, and shut their eyes for sixty seconds.
I asked them to observe for one minute where their minds leap without any external distractions from their top friends on MySpace or their World of Warcraft guild. From the beginning, I remind these young people that the purpose of my attention probes are to plant seeds of mindfulness about how we all use our attention, especially in the presence of seductive distractions from email to Facebook to IMing. I wasn’t trying to control them. I was trying to draw their attention to how little control any of us seem to have over where we let the screens on our laps and in our pockets lead our thoughts. I was surprised to discover that my students welcomed my occasional orders to turn off their laptops in class. Learning theory - models, product and process. Learning theory: models, product and process.
What is learning? Is it a change in behaviour or understanding? Is it a process? Here we survey some common models. Donald Schon (Schön) - learning, reflection and change. Contents: introduction · donald schon · public and private learning and the learning society · double-loop learning · the reflective practitioner – reflection-in- and –on-action · conclusion · further reading and references · links · how to cite this article Note: I have used Donald Schon rather than Donald Schön (which is the correct spelling) as English language web search engines (and those using them!)
Often have difficulties with umlauts). Donald Alan Schon (1930-1997) trained as a philosopher, but it was his concern with the development of reflective practice and learning systems within organizations and communities for which he is remembered. Significantly, he was also an accomplished pianist and clarinettist – playing in both jazz and chamber groups. Chris argyris, double-loop learning and organizational learning @ the encyclopedia of informal education. Contents: introduction · life · theories of action: theory in use and espoused theory · single-loop and double-loop learning · model I and model II · organizational learning · conclusion · further reading and references · links · cite Chris Argyris has made a significant contribution to the development of our appreciation of organizational learning, and, almost in passing, deepened our understanding of experiential learning.
On this page we examine the significance of the models he developed with Donald Schön of single-loop and double-loop learning, and how these translate into contrasting models of organizational learning systems. Life Chris Argyris was born in Newark, New Jersey on July 16, 1923 and grew up in Irvington, New Jersey. During the Second World War he joined the Signal Corps in the U.S. Kurt lewin: groups, experiential learning and action research. Contents: introduction · life · field theory · group dynamics · democracy and groups · t-groups, facilitation and experience · action research · conclusion · further reading and references · links. see, also : the groupwork pioneers series Kurt Lewin’s (1890-1947) work had a profound impact on social psychology and, more particularly for our purposes here, on our appreciation of experiential learning, group dynamics and action research.
On this page we provide a very brief outline of his life and an assessment of his continuing relevance to educators. Kurt Lewin was born on September 9, 1890 in the village of Mogilno in Prussia (now part of Poland). He was one of four children in a middle class Jewish family (his father owned a small general store and a farm). They moved to Berlin when he was aged 15 and he was enrolled in the Gymnasium.