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Impostor syndrome. For the belief that a familiar person has been replaced by an impostor, see Capgras delusion.

Impostor syndrome

Background[edit] The impostor syndrome tends to be studied as a reaction to certain stimuli and events. It is not perceived to be a mental disorder, but it has been the topic of research for many psychologists. Though traditionally perceived as an ingrained personality trait, impostor syndrome has more recently been studied as a reaction to certain situations. Under this interpretation, it is a response experienced by many different people to situations that prompt such feelings. The term "impostor syndrome" first appeared in an article written by Pauline R.

In high achievers[edit] Imes and Clance found several behaviours of high-achieving women with impostor syndrome:[2] Diligence: Gifted people often work hard in order to prevent people from discovering that they are "impostors. " Prevalence[edit] Demographics[edit] Download. Hypostatic model of personality. Matryoshka dolls provide a visual representation of the multiplicity and complexity of personality.

Hypostatic model of personality

The work on subpersonalities was summarized by John Rowan in 1990.[2] The term hypostatic model was used by Codrin Tapu in 2001.[3] The model describes personality aspects and dimensions, as well as intra- and interpersonal relations. The relation between semantics and semiotics. Semiotics for Beginners: Introduction. Rosenhan experiment. Rosenhan's study was done in two parts.

Rosenhan experiment

The first part involved the use of healthy associates or "pseudopatients" (three women and five men, including Rosenhan himself) who briefly feigned auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different states in various locations in the United States.

All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission, the pseudopatients acted normally and told staff that they felt fine and had no longer experienced any additional hallucinations. All were forced to admit to having a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release. The average time that the patients spent in the hospital was 19 days. The second part of his study involved an offended hospital administration challenging Rosenhan to send pseudopatients to its facility, whom its staff would then detect.

On Being Sane In Insane Places. On Being Sane In Insane Places David L.

On Being Sane In Insane Places

Rosenhan How do we know precisely what constitutes “normality” or mental illness? Conventional wisdom suggests that specially trained professionals have the ability to make reasonably accurate diagnoses. In this research, however, David Rosenhan provides evidence to challenge this assumption. If sanity and insanity exist, how shall we know them? The question is neither capricious nor itself insane.

To raise questions regarding normality and abnormality is in no way to question the fact that some behaviors are deviant or odd. At its heart, the question of whether the sane can be distinguished from the insane (and whether degrees of insanity can be distinguished from each other) is a simple matter: Do the salient characteristics that lead to diagnoses reside in the patients themselves or in the environments and contexts in which observers find them? This article describes such an experiment.

The eight pseudopatients were a varied group. Transpersonal psychology. Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance, spiritual crises, spiritual evolution, religious conversion, altered states of consciousness, spiritual practices, and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living.

Transpersonal psychology

The discipline attempts to describe and integrate spiritual experience within modern psychological theory and to formulate new theory to encompass such experience. Transpersonal psychology has made several contributions to the academic field, and the studies of human development, consciousness and spirituality.[3][4] Transpersonal psychology has also made contributions to the fields of psychotherapy[5] and psychiatry.[6][7] Definition[edit] Lajoie and Shapiro[8] reviewed forty definitions of transpersonal psychology that had appeared in academic literature over the period from 1968 to 1991.

Synesthesia. How someone with synesthesia might perceive (not "see") certain letters and numbers.


Synesthetes see characters just as others do (in whichever color actually displayed), yet simultaneously perceive colors as associated to each one. Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia; from the Ancient Greek σύν syn, "together", and αἴσθησις aisthēsis, "sensation") is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.[1][2][3][4] People who report such experiences are known as synesthetes. Difficulties have been recognized in adequately defining synesthesia:[5][6] many different phenomena have been included in the term synesthesia ("union of the senses"), and in many cases the terminology seems to be inaccurate. A more accurate term may be ideasthesia. Psychogenic. Gerontology. Gerontology (from the Greek γέρων, geron, "old man" and -λογία, -logy, "study of"; coined by Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov in 1903) is the study of the social, psychological and biological aspects of aging.


It is distinguished from geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that studies the diseases of older adults. Gerontologists include researchers and practitioners in the fields of biology, medicine, criminology, dentistry, social work, physical and occupational therapy, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics, political science, architecture, geography, pharmacy, nursing, public health, housing, and anthropology.[1] Gerontology encompasses the following: The multidisciplinary nature of gerontology means that there are a number of subfields, as well as associated fields such as psychology and sociology that overlap with gerontology. History of gerontology[edit] It was not until the 1940s, however, that pioneers like James Birren began organizing gerontology into its own field. Sources of the Self. Summary[edit] The book "is an attempt to articulate and write a history of the modern identity... what it is to be a human agent: the senses of inwardness, freedom, individuality, and being embedded in nature... in the modern West.

Sources of the Self