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Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul. Ib (heart)[edit] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention.

Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul

This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word ib, Awt-ib: happiness (literally, wideness of heart), Xak-ib: estranged (literally, truncated of heart). This word was transcribed by Wallis Budge as Ab. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor. Sheut (shadow)[edit] A person's shadow or silhouette, Sheut (šwt in Egyptian), is always present.

The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Ren (name)[edit] Ba[edit] Ba takes the form of a bird with a human head. 5.9 kiloyear event. Outlook - jamt07211976. Imhotep. Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre Chancellor of the King of Egypt, Doctor, First in line after the King of Upper Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, High Priest of Heliopolis, Builder, Chief Carpenter, Chief Sculptor, and Maker of Vases in Chief.


He was one of only a few commoners ever to be accorded divine status after death. The center of his cult was Memphis. From the First Intermediate Period onward Imhotep was also revered as a poet and philosopher. His sayings were famously referenced in poems: "I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hordedef with whose discourses men speak so much. Hatshepsut. For other ancient Egyptians called Maatkare, see Maatkare.


Hatshepsut (/hætˈʃɛpsʊt/;[4] also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies;[5] 1507–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu.[6] (Various other women may have also ruled as pharaohs regnant or at least regents before Hatshepsut, as early as Neithhotep around 1600 years prior.) Thinis. Due to its ancient heritage, Thinis remained a significant religious centre, housing the tomb and mummy of the regional deity.


In ancient Egyptian religious cosmology, as seen (for example) in the Book of the Dead, Thinis played a role as a mythical place in heaven.[1] Although the precise location of Thinis is unknown, mainstream Egyptological consensus places it in the vicinity of ancient Abydos and modern Girga.[2][3][4] Name and location[edit] The name Thinis is derived from Manetho's use of the adjective Thinite to describe the pharaoh Menes.[5] Although the corresponding Thinis does not appear in Greek, it is demanded by the Egyptian original[2] and is the more popular name among Egyptologists.[5][6] This is also suggested.[7] History[edit] Nearby Abydos (Osireion pictured), after ceding its political rank to Thinis, remained an important religious centre.

Pre-dynastic and Early Dynastic periods[edit] Old Kingdom[edit] New Kingdom and Late Period[edit] Meidum. Located about 100 km south of modern Cairo, Meidum or Maidum (Arabic: ميدوم‎) is the location of a large pyramid, and several large mud-brick mastabas.


Red Pyramid. The Red Pyramid was not always red.

Red Pyramid

It used to be cased with white Tura limestone, but only a few of these stones now remain at the pyramid's base, at the corner. During the Middle Ages much of the white Tura limestone was taken for buildings in Cairo, revealing the durable reddish granite stone beneath. Isometric, plan and elevation images of the Red Pyramid Complex taken from a 3d model This pyramid forms the third largest granite building in the whole world to the present. History[edit] Comparison of approximate profiles of Red Pyramid with some notable pyramidal or near-pyramidal buildings. Archaeologists speculate its design may be an outcome of engineering crises experienced during the construction of Sneferu's two earlier pyramids. Muhammad Ali of Egypt. Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (Ottoman Turkish: محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; Arabic: محمد علي باشا‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa;[2] 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was a commander in the Ottoman army, who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottoman's temporary approval.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 led by Muhammad Naguib. Muhammad or Mehmed/Mehmet[edit] Mount Sinai. Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء‎ Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or جبل موسى Jabal Mūsá ; Egyptian Arabic: Gabal Mūsa, lit.

Mount Sinai

"Moses' Mountain" or "Mount Moses"; Hebrew: הר סיני‎ Har Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai.

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