History and Philosophy of Science - Recommended Reading. By Paul Newall (2005) There are plenty of works in the history and philosophy of science worth studying, but perhaps too many to know where to start.
This introduction gives an historical overview, explaining the relevance of some of the better-known tomes. Philosophy of Science: There are several excellent textbooks at undergraduate or higher level in the philosophy of science. Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues, edited by Curd and Cover, Philosophy of Science, edited by Boyd, Gaspar and Trout, and A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, edited by W.H. What is this Thing called Science? The Philosophy of Physics, edited by Roberto Torretti, is a thorough textbook on the philosophical issues of importance within Physics, while The Philosophy of Biology, edited by David L. Karl Popper's The Logic of Scientific Discovery has been called one of the most important philosophical works of the twentieth century.
Maxwell’s demon in the quantum world. +Enlarge image Credit: (a) Shutterstock.com/Scott Maxwell/LuMaxArt; S.
W. Kim et al., ; (b) S. W. Kim et al.,  Information and thermodynamics are intimately connected. In a paper appearing in Physical Review Letters , Sang Wook Kim at the Pusan National University, Korea, and the University of Tokyo, Japan, along with collaborators from the University of Tokyo analyze a multiparticle quantum version of the Szilard engine, highlighting how the quantum statistics of fermions and bosons can dramatically affect the engine’s performance. The original Szilard engine consists of a classical particle in a box attached to a thermal reservoir at temperature . Despite the age of the problem, the analysis of the Szilard engine continues to benefit from new theoretical and experimental developments. In their paper, Kim et al. present a general analysis of the isothermal Szilard engine using an arbitrary number of quantum particles. References H. About the Author: Juan M. How transistor works, an alternate viewpoint.
Voltage-driven charge-flows First of all, you must abandon the idea that current travels in transistors or flows inside of wires.
Yes, you heard me right. Current does not flow. Electric current never flows, since an electric current is not a stuff. Electric current is a flow of something else. Since a current is a flow of charge, the common expression "flow of current" should be avoided, since literally it means "flow of flow of charge So what flows inside of wires? The stuff that moves within wires is not named Electric Current. Second: the charges found within conductors do not push themselves along, but instead they're pushed by "potential difference;" they're pushed by the voltage-fields within the conductive material.
Third: have you discovered the big 'secret' of visualizing electric circuits? Wires and silicon ...both behave like pre-filled water pipes or water tanks. The truth will set you free ...but first it will piss you off! Brief review: See what's happening here? Also:
Laboratory architecture: Building for an uncertain future - Phys. Electoral dysfunction: Why democracy is always. Is this a unified theory of the brain? - life - THE quest to understand the most complex object in the known universe has been a long and fruitful one.
These days we know a good deal about how the human brain works - how our senses translate into electrical signals, how different parts of the brain process these signals, how memories form and how muscles are controlled. We know which brain regions are active when we listen to speech, look at paintings or barter over money.
We are even starting to understand the deeper neural processes behind learning and decision-making. What we still don't have, though, is a way to bring all these pieces together to create an overarching theory of how the brain works. Despite decades of research, neuroscientists have never been able to produce their own equivalent of Schrödinger's equation in quantum mechanics or Einstein's E=mc2 - a powerful, concise, mathematical law that encapsulates how the brain works. ...