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Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction , while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works.
Frederic Henry is an American serving as a lieutenant in the Italian army in Italy during World War One . He describes the beautiful lodgings and the village Gorizia through which troops and guns are being moved. There are soldiers bearing their weapons and officers proceeding through town in automobiles. The fast car usually carries the King, Vittorio Emmanuelle, who "lived in Udine and came out this way nearly every day to see how things were going, and things went very badly." Chapter 1, pg. 4 . Seven thousand soldiers die of cholera at the end of the year when the rains come.
On the surface, The Crying of Lot 49 is so much a novel about Oedipa Maas, her life, her loves, her thoughts, that it hardly qualifies as what Irving Howe would describe as a political novel. 1 Yet while this miniature masterpiece is not a manifesto or a call to arms, some critics see reading it as a "subversive experience" that could generate contempt for power, a disrespect for the national leadership, because Lot 49 is a scathing history lesson, a look behind the political events and historical figurations that led America into the mess that was the mid-sixties. (Kolodny) To study Lot 49 is to decrypt Pynchon’s encoded messages and enter split–level consciousness, to read the narrative against the counter–narrative of historical allusions, to find how skepticism toward government is central to Pynchon’s work. When we do, we find Lot 49 to be Pynchon’s encrypted meditation on the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy.
David Foster Wallace