Risks & Risk Management
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endotoxemia /en·do·tox·e·mia/ ( en″do-toks-ēm´e-ah ) the presence of endotoxins in the blood, which may result in shock. Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aerial view of icebergs and glaciers at Cape York, Greenland An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It may subsequently become frozen into pack ice (one form of sea ice ). As it drifts into shallower waters, it may come into contact with the seabed, a process referred to as seabed gouging by ice . [ edit ] Etymology The word "iceberg" is a partial loan translation from Dutch ijsberg , literally meaning ice mountain , [ 3 ] cognate to Swedish isberg , Danish isbjerg , German Eisberg , Low Saxon Iesbarg . [ edit ] Overview
Saturation , saturated , unsaturation or unsaturated may refer to: [ edit ] Chemistry [ edit ] Hydrology Saturated zone , below the water table Unsaturated zone , above the water table [ edit ] Mathematics Saturated model , a concept in mathematical logic Saturation arithmetic , in arithmetic, a version of arithmetic in which all operations are limited to fixed range Saturation (graph theory) , a categorization of vertices in graph theory Saturated measure , if every locally measurable set is also measurable
Lipofuscin is the name given to finely granular yellow-brown pigment granules [ 1 ] composed of lipid -containing residues of lysosomal digestion. It is considered one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver , kidney , heart muscle, adrenals , nerve cells, and ganglion cells. It is specifically arranged around the nucleus, and is a type of lipochrome . [ edit ] Formation and turnover It appears to be the product of the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids , and may be symptomatic of membrane damage, or damage to mitochondria and lysosomes . Aside from a large lipid content, lipofuscin is known to contain sugars and metals, including mercury , aluminum , iron , copper and zinc . [ 2 ]
Multipotentiality is an educational and psychological term referring to the ability of a person, particularly one of intellectual or artistic curiosity , to excel in two or more different fields. [ 1 ] It can also refer to an individual whose interests span multiple fields or areas, rather than being strong in just one. Such individuals are called "multipotentialites." On the contrary, those whose interests lie mostly within a single field are called "specialists." While the term multipotentialite can be used interchangeably with polymath or Renaissance Person, the terms are not identical. One need not be an expert in any particular field to be a multipotentialite.
A limiting factor causes a population to decrease in size. A few limiting factors are food, shelter, water, space. These are not all limited to the condition of the species. Some factors may be increased or reduced based on circumstances. An example of a limiting factor is sunlight in the rain forest, where growth is limited to all plants in the under story unless more light becomes available. This decreases plants photosynthesis.
In ecology , the competitive exclusion principle , [ 1 ] sometimes referred to as Gause's law of competitive exclusion or just Gause's law , [ 2 ] is a proposition which states that two species competing for the same resources, that are limited, cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant. When one species has even the slightest advantage or edge over another, then the one with the advantage will dominate in the long term. One of the two competitors will always overcome the other, leading to either the extinction of this competitor, complete anihilation of the species, or an evolutionary or behavioral shift towards a different ecological niche . The principle has been paraphrased into the maxim " complete competitors cannot coexist ". [ 1 ] [ edit ] Experimental basis
Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall . [ 1 ] Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic . Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae , which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium , which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases . Mycoplasma is the smallest known cell and is about 0.1 µm in diameter. [ edit ] Origin of the name The name Mycoplasma , from the Greek mykes (fungus) and plasma (formed), was first used by Albert Bernhard Frank in 1889.
People who earn their living by collecting and sorting garbage and selling them for recycling ( waste pickers ), Payatas , Philippines. Waste(s) (also known as rubbish , trash , refuse , garbage , junk , and litter ) is a pejorative term for unwanted materials . The term can be described as subjective and inaccurate because waste to one person is not waste to another. Litter refers to waste disposed of improperly. [ edit ] Definitions
Illustration of a black hole . Most models of the far future of the Universe suggest that eventually, these will be the only remaining celestial objects. While predictions of the future can never be absolutely certain, present scientific understanding in various fields has allowed a projected course for the farthest future events to be sketched out, if only in the broadest strokes.
The precautionary principle or precautionary approach states if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment , in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking an act. This principle allows policy makers to make discretionary decisions in situations where there is the possibility of harm from taking a particular course or making a certain decision when extensive scientific knowledge on the matter is lacking. The principle implies that there is a social responsibility to protect the public from exposure to harm, when scientific investigation has found a plausible risk. These protections can be relaxed only if further scientific findings emerge that provide sound evidence that no harm will result. In some legal systems, as in the law of the European Union , the application of the precautionary principle has been made a statutory requirement. [ 1 ]
Systematic errors are biases in measurement which lead to the situation where the mean of many separate measurements differs significantly from the actual value of the measured attribute. All measurements are prone to systematic errors, often of several different types. Sources of systematic error may be imperfect calibration of measurement instruments (zero error), changes in the environment which interfere with the measurement process and sometimes imperfect methods of observation can be either zero error or percentage error. For example, consider an experimenter taking a reading of the time period of a pendulum swinging past a fiducial mark: If their stop-watch or timer starts with 1 second on the clock then all of their results will be off by 1 second (zero error).
The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion , an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly.
Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system . It includes the internal energy , which is the energy required to create a system, and the amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and establishing its volume and pressure . Enthalpy is a thermodynamic potential . It is a state function and an extensive quantity. The unit of measurement for enthalpy in the International System of Units (SI) is the joule , but other historical, conventional units are still in use, such as the British thermal unit and the calorie .
Garbage in, garbage out ( GIGO ) in the field of computer science or information and communications technology refers to the fact that computers will unquestioningly process the most nonsensical of input data "garbage in" and produce nonsensical output "garbage out". [ edit ] History It was most popular in the early days of computing, but applies even more today, when powerful computers can spew out mountains of erroneous information in a short time. The first use of the term has been dated to a 1 April 1963 syndicated newspaper article about the first stages of computerization of the US Internal Revenue Service . [ 1 ] The term was brought to prominence as a teaching mantra by George Fuechsel, [ 2 ] an IBM 305 RAMAC technician/instructor in New York. Early programmers were required to test virtually each program step and cautioned not to expect that the resulting program would "do the right thing" when given imperfect input.