Risks and Risk Management II
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive , colorless, odorless, tasteless [ 1 ] noble gas , occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium or thorium . Its most stable isotope , 222 Rn , has a half-life of 3.8 days. Radon is one of the densest substances that remains a gas under normal conditions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Escalation is the process of incresing or rising, derived from the concept of an escalator . Specific uses of the term include: Cost escalation , an increase in the price of goods Conflict escalation , an increase in the intensity of a conflict De-escalation , an attempt to quell conflict Escalation of commitment , an aspect of game theory Privilege escalation , a computer security process Technological escalation , a technological version of an arms race
Social engineering , in the context of information security, is understood to mean the art of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. [ 1 ] This is a type of confidence trick for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or gaining computer system access. It differs from traditional cons in that often the attack is a mere step in a more complex fraud scheme. "Social engineering" as an act of psychological manipulation had previously been associated with the social sciences, but its usage has caught on among computer and information security professionals. [ 2 ]
Theobromine poisoning or chocolate poisoning is an overdose reaction to the alkaloid theobromine , found in chocolate , tea , cola beverages , [ 1 ] açaí berries, [ citation needed ] and some other foods. Toxic ( LD 50 ) doses of theobromine have only been published for humans, cats, dogs, rats, and mice; these differ by a factor of 6 across species (see the table in this article). The toxicity for (pet) birds is not known, but it is typically assumed that chocolate is dangerous for birds. [ 2 ] Chocolate [ edit ] In humans [ edit ]
Immunotoxicity Definitions Immunotoxicity is defined as adverse effects on the functioning of the immune system that result from exposure to chemical substances. Altered immune function may lead to the increased incidence or severity of infectious diseases or cancer, since the immune systemÂ’s ability to respond adequately to invading agents is suppressed. Identifying immunotoxicants is difficult because chemicals can cause a wide variety of complicated effects on immune function. Observations in humans and studies in rodents have clearly demonstrated that a number of environmental and industrial chemicals can adversely affect the immune system. Exposure to asbestos, benzene, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins (TCDD) can lead to immunosuppression in humans.
A comparison of the structures of the natural hormone estradiol (left) and one of the nonyl-phenols (right), an endocrine disruptor. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that at certain doses, can interfere with the endocrine (or hormone system) in mammals. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones, can be derailed by hormone disruptors. While some endocrine disruptors have been identified and removed from the market (for example, a drug called diethylstilbestrol ), it is uncertain whether other compounds commonly called endocrine disruptors actually harm humans and wildlife at the doses to which wildlife and humans are exposed.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system . The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology . Types of endocrine disease [ edit ]
Single-strand and double-strand DNA damage potentionally caused by genotoxins In genetics , genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations , which may lead to cancer . While genotoxicity is often confused with mutagenicity, it is important to note that all mutagens are genotoxic, however, not all genotoxic substances are mutagenic. The alteration can have direct or indirect effects on the DNA: the induction of mutations, mistimed event activation, and direct DNA damage leading to mutations. The permanent, hereditary changes can affect either somatic cells of the organism or germ cells to be passed on to future generations. [ 1 ] Cells prevent expression of the genotoxic mutation by either DNA repair or apoptosis ; however, the damage may not always be fixed leading to mutagenesis .
In biology, adipose tissue / ˈ æ d ɨ ˌ p oʊ s / or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes . In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells (i.e. adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)). Adipose tissue is derived from preadipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids , although it also cushions and insulates the body. Far from hormonally inert, adipose tissue has in recent years been recognized as a major endocrine organ, [ 1 ] as it produces hormones such as leptin , estrogen , resistin , and the cytokine TNFα . Moreover, adipose tissue can affect other organ systems of the body and may lead to disease.
Normalization may refer to: Mathematics and statistics [ edit ] Normalization property (abstract rewriting) , term in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science Noether normalization lemma , result of commutative algebra Quantile normalization , statistical technique for making two distributions identical in statistical properties Normalizing constant , in probability theory Normalization (statistics) , removing statistical error from measured data The process of obtaining a normalized vector Science [ edit ]
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company . All rights reserved.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Looping may refer to: Media and entertainment Loop (music) , a repeating section of sound material Audio induction loop , an aid for the hard of hearing.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company . All rights reserved. extraneous [ɪkˈstreɪnɪəs]
Extraordinary rendition or irregular rendition is the apprehension and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one country to another. [ 1 ] During the United States war on terror under the administration of President George W. Bush , the term became associated with US practices of transferring suspects for interrogation in countries known to employ torture . The process has continued under the Barack Obama administration , though new rules have been put in place that supposedly prevent torture of abducted individuals; in August 2009, U.S.
Extradition is the official process whereby one country transfers a suspected or convicted criminal to another country. Between country, extradition is normally regulated by treaties . Where extradition is compelled by laws, such as among sub-national jurisdictions, the concept may be known more generally as rendition . It is an ancient mechanism, dating back to at least the 13th century BC, when an Egyptian Pharaoh negotiated an extradition treaty with a Hittite King. [ 1 ] Through the extradition process, a sovereign (the requesting state) typically makes a formal request to another sovereign (the requested state). If the fugitive is found within the territory of the requested state, then the requested state may arrest the fugitive and subject him or her to its extradition process. [ 1 ] The extradition procedures to which the fugitive will be subjected are dependent on the law and practice of the requested state. [ 1 ] Extradition treaties or agreements [ edit ]