# Processes & Calculations

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Woman performing a "swallow dive", 1937 Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard , sometimes while performing acrobatics . Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games . In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.

## Skim

Skim or skimming may refer to: Skimming (reading) , a process or technique of speed reading Skim or skimming may also refer to:

## Decompression

In computer science , local search is a metaheuristic method for solving computationally hard optimization problems. Local search can be used on problems that can be formulated as finding a solution maximizing a criterion among a number of candidate solutions . Local search algorithms move from solution to solution in the space of candidate solutions (the search space ) by applying local changes, until a solution deemed optimal is found or a time bound is elapsed. Local search algorithms are widely applied to numerous hard computational problems, including problems from computer science (particularly artificial intelligence ), mathematics , operations research , engineering , and bioinformatics . Examples of local search algorithms are WalkSAT and the 2-opt algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem .

## Reminding

utilise - put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose; "use your head!"; "we only use Spanish at home"; "I can't use this tool"; "Apply a magnetic field here"; "This thinking was applied to many projects"; "How do you utilize this tool?"; "I apply this rule to get good results"; "use the plastic bags to store the food"; "He doesn't know how to use a computer" dedicate , devote , commit , consecrate , give - give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause; "She committed herself to the work of God"; "give one's talents to a good cause"; "consecrate your life to the church" play - employ in a game or in a specific position; "They played him on first base" play - use or move; "I had to play my queen"

## Correlation and dependence

In statistics , dependence refers to any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data . Correlation refers to any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence. Familiar examples of dependent phenomena include the correlation between the physical statures of parents and their offspring, and the correlation between the demand for a product and its price. Correlations are useful because they can indicate a predictive relationship that can be exploited in practice. For example, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation between electricity demand and weather. In this example there is a causal relationship , because extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling; however, statistical dependence is not sufficient to demonstrate the presence of such a causal relationship (i.e., Correlation does not imply causation ).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fixation may refer to: [ edit ] Science Fixation (psychology) , the state in which an individual becomes obsessed with an attachment to another human, an animal, or an inanimate object Fixation (visual) maintaining the gaze in a constant direction Fixation (alchemy) , a process in the alchemical magnum opus Carbon fixation , a biochemical process, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds Nitrogen fixation , a process by which nitrogen is converted from its inert molecular form to a compound more readily available and useful to living organisms Fixation (population genetics) , the state when every individual in a population has the same allele at a particular locus Fixation (histology) in biochemistry, histology, cell biology and pathology, the technique of preserving a specimen for microscopic study Fixation agent , a process chemical

## Interference (wave propagation)

Interference caused by the reflection on a CD In physics , interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superimpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude . Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency .

## Combination (disambiguation)

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory , a matching or independent edge set in a graph is a set of edges without common vertices . It may also be an entire graph consisting of edges without common vertices. [ edit ] Definition Given a graph G = ( V , E ), a matching M in G is a set of pairwise non-adjacent edges; that is, no two edges share a common vertex. A vertex is matched (or saturated ) if it is an endpoint of one of the edges in the matching.

## Combination

In mathematics a combination is a way of selecting several things out of a larger group, where (unlike permutations ) order does not matter. In smaller cases it is possible to count the number of combinations. For example given three fruit, say an apple, orange and pear, there are three combinations of two that can be drawn from this set: an apple and a pear; an apple and an orange; or a pear and an orange. More formally a k - combination of a set S is a subset of k distinct elements of S . If the set has n elements the number of k -combinations is equal to the binomial coefficient which can be written using factorials as
In applied mathematics and theoretical computer science , combinatorial optimization is a topic that consists of finding an optimal object from a finite set of objects. [ 1 ] In many such problems, exhaustive search is not feasible. It operates on the domain of those optimization problems, in which the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be reduced to discrete, and in which the goal is to find the best solution. Some common problems involving combinatorial optimization are the traveling salesman problem ("TSP") and the minimum spanning tree problem ("MST"). Combinatorial optimization is a subset of mathematical optimization that is related to operations research , algorithm theory , and computational complexity theory . It has important applications in several fields, including artificial intelligence , machine learning , mathematics , auction theory , and software engineering .

## Combinatorial optimization

Ergodic theory is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems. Its initial development was motivated by problems of statistical physics . A central concern of ergodic theory is the behavior of a dynamical system when it is allowed to run for a long time. The first result in this direction is the Poincaré recurrence theorem , which claims that almost all points in any subset of the phase space eventually revisit the set.

## Ergodic theory

Combinatorics is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures . Aspects of combinatorics include counting the structures of a given kind and size ( enumerative combinatorics ), deciding when certain criteria can be met, and constructing and analyzing objects meeting the criteria (as in combinatorial designs and matroid theory), finding "largest", "smallest", or "optimal" objects ( extremal combinatorics and combinatorial optimization ), and studying combinatorial structures arising in an algebraic context, or applying algebraic techniques to combinatorial problems ( algebraic combinatorics ). Combinatorial problems arise in many areas of pure mathematics, notably in algebra , probability theory , topology , and geometry , [ 1 ] and combinatorics also has many applications in optimization , computer science , ergodic theory and statistical physics .

## Reflection

Reflection or reflexion may refer to: [ edit ] Science Mirror image , a reflection in a mirror or in water Reflection nebula , a nebula that is extended and has no boundaries Reflection (physics) , a common wave phenomenon Elastic scattering , a concept in nuclear and particle physics Signal reflection , in signal transmission Specular reflection , the physics for reflection of light