# Processes & Calculations III

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An artificial neural network , often just named a neural network , is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks . A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons , and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation . In most cases a neural network is an adaptive system changing its structure during a learning phase.

## Decision tree learning

Decision tree learning , used in statistics , data mining and machine learning , uses a decision tree as a predictive model which maps observations about an item to conclusions about the item's target value.
In pattern recognition , the k -nearest neighbor algorithm ( k -NN) is a method for classifying objects based on closest training examples in the feature space . k -NN is a type of instance-based learning , or lazy learning where the function is only approximated locally and all computation is deferred until classification. The k -nearest neighbor algorithm is amongst the simplest of all machine learning algorithms: an object is classified by a majority vote of its neighbors, with the object being assigned to the class most common amongst its k nearest neighbors ( k is a positive integer , typically small). If k = 1, then the object is simply assigned to the class of its nearest neighbor. The same method can be used for regression , by simply assigning the property value for the object to be the average of the values of its k nearest neighbors.

## k-nearest neighbor algorithm

Bayesian statistics is a subset of the field of statistics in which the evidence about the true state of the world is expressed in terms of degrees of belief or, more specifically, Bayesian probabilities . Such an interpretation is only one of a number of interpretations of probability and there are many other statistical techniques that are not based on "degrees of belief". [ edit ] Outline The general set of statistical techniques can be divided into a number of activities, many of which have special "Bayesian" versions.

## Bayesian statistics

Machine learning , a branch of artificial intelligence , is about the construction and study of systems that can learn from data.

## Supervised learning

Supervised learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function from labeled training data. The training data consist of a set of training examples . In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of an input object (typically a vector) and a desired output value (also called the supervisory signal ).

## Support vector machine

In machine learning , support vector machines ( SVMs , also support vector networks [ 1 ] ) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns, used for classification and regression analysis . The basic SVM takes a set of input data and predicts, for each given input, which of two possible classes forms the output, making it a non- probabilistic binary linear classifier . Given a set of training examples, each marked as belonging to one of two categories, a SVM training algorithm builds a model that assigns new examples into one category or the other.
In statistics , quality assurance , and survey methodology , sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the governing specifications . Two advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower and data collection is faster than measuring the entire population.

## Centroid

Centroid of a triangle In geometry and physics , the centroid or geometric center of a two-dimensional region is, informally, the point at which a cardboard cut-out of the region could be perfectly balanced on the tip of a pencil (assuming uniform density and a uniform gravitational field). Formally, the centroid of a plane figure or two-dimensional shape is the arithmetic mean ("average") position of all the points in the shape. The definition extends to any object in n - dimensional space : its centroid is the mean position of all the points in all of the coordinate directions.

## Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis (also called biogenesis or "anabolism") is an enzyme-catalyzed process in cells of living organisms by which substrates are converted to more complex products . [ 1 ] The biosynthesis process often consists of several enzymatic steps in which the product of one step is used as substrate in the following step. Examples for such multi-step biosynthetic pathways are those for the production of amino acids , fatty acids , and natural products . [ 2 ] Biosynthesis plays a major role in all cells, and many dedicated metabolic routes combined constitute general metabolism. Six organelles in the cell are involved in biosynthesis: ribosomes, chloroplasts, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, and Golgi bodies. [ 3 ] The prerequisites for biosynthesis are precursor compounds, chemical energy (such as in the form ATP ), and catalytic enzymes , which may require reduction equivalents (e.g., in the form of NADH , NADPH ).

## Respiration

Respiration may refer to: Biology
Biomimetics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems as models for the design and engineering of materials and machines. It is widely regarded as being synonymous with biomimicry , biomimesis , biognosis and similar to biologically inspired design . [ edit ] History The term biomimetics is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix mimetic, "having an aptitude for mimicry", the latter being a word originally used in the 1630s, derived from the Greek μιμητικός, mimetikos, "imitative,". [ 1 ]

## Biomimetics

Termination may refer to: In science: Termination codon , in molecular biology Termination factor , in genetics, part of the process of transcribing RNA Termination type , in lithic reduction, a characteristic indicating the manner in which the distal end of a lithic flake detaches from a core Chain termination , in chemistry, a chemical reaction which halts polymerization Termination proof , a type of mathematical proof Termination shock , in solar studies, a feature of the heliosphere Terminating computation , in computer science In technology: Other uses:

## Termination

An invention is a unique or novel device , method, composition or process.

## Invention

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company .