Processes & Calculations II
Theranostics (a portmanteau of therapeutics and diagnostics) is a proposed process of diagnostic therapy for individual patients - to test them for possible reaction to taking a new medication and to tailor a treatment for them based on the test results. Theranostics would be a key part of personalized medicine and require considerable advances in predictive medicine. Theranostics would also rely on pharmacogenomics, drug discovery using genetics, molecular biology and microarray chips technology. In 2011 advancements were made in the field of theranostics with the development of novel heptamethine dyes IR-808 and other analogs which are currently being explored for their unique uses in the individualized treatment of cancerous patients with the aid of PDT, co-administration with other drugs, and irradiation. Theranostics
Personalized medicine or PM is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare - with medical decisions, practices, and/or products being tailored to the individual patient. The use of genetic information has played a major role in certain aspects of personalized medicine, and the term was even first coined in the context of genetics (though it has since broadened to encompass all sorts of personalization measures). To distinguish from the sense in which medicine has always been inherently "personal" to each patient, PM commonly denotes the use of some kind of technology or discovery enabling a level of personalization not previously feasible or practical. Personalized medicine
When estimating the cost for a project , product or other item or investment, there is always uncertainty as to the precise content of all items in the estimate, how work will be performed, what work conditions will be like when the project is executed and so on. These uncertainties are risks to the project . Some refer to these risks as "known-unknowns" because the estimator is aware of them, and based on past experience, can even estimate their probable costs. The estimated costs of the known-unknowns is referred to by cost estimators as cost contingency. Contingency "refers to costs that will probably occur based on past experience, but with some uncertainty regarding the amount. The term is not used as a catchall to cover ignorance. Cost contingency
recovery - definition of recovery by the Free Online Dictionary The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company . All rights reserved. recovery [rɪˈkʌvərɪ]
Transposition may refer to: Mathematics Transposition (mathematics) , a permutation which exchanges two elements and keeps all others fixed Transposition, producing the transpose of a matrix A T , which is computed by swapping columns for rows in the matrix A Games Transposition
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Separation may refer to: Separation (United States military) , the process by which a service member leaves active duty Separation (air traffic control) , rules to minimise the risk of collision between aircraft in flight Separation mastering , in music recording [ edit ] Literature, film, music Separation
Sonication is the act of applying sound (usually ultrasound ) energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes. In the laboratory, it is usually applied using an ultrasonic bath or an ultrasonic probe , colloquially known as a sonicator . In a paper machine , an ultrasonic foil can distribute cellulose fibres more uniformly and strengthen the paper. [ edit ] Effects Sonication has numerous effects, both chemical and physical. The chemical effects of ultrasound are concerned with understanding the effect of sonic waves on chemical systems. Sonication
Shuttling 1 shut·tle noun \ ˈ shə-t ə l\ a : a device used in weaving for passing the thread of the weft between the threads of the warp b : a spindle-shaped device holding the thread in tatting, knotting, or netting c : a sliding thread holder for the lower thread of a sewing machine that carries the lower thread through a loop of the upper thread to make a stitch a : a going back and forth regularly over an often short route by a vehicle b (1) : an established route used in a shuttle (2) : a vehicle used in a shuttle <a shuttle bus> c : space shuttle
Nanobiotechnology Bionanotechnology , nanobiotechnology , and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology . [ 1 ] Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices , nanoparticles , and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created.
Downhill folding Downhill folding is a process in which a protein folds without encountering any significant macroscopic free energy barrier . It is a key prediction of the folding funnel hypothesis of the energy landscape theory of proteins. [ edit ] Overview Downhill folding is predicted to occur under conditions of extreme native bias, i.e. at low temperatures or in the absence of denaturants . This corresponds to the type 0 scenario in the energy landscape theory. At temperatures or denaturant concentrations close to their apparent midpoints , proteins may switch from downhill to two-state folding, the type 0 to type 1 transition.
Denaturation (biochemistry) (Top) The protein "albumin" in egg white undergoes denaturation and loss of solubility when the egg is cooked. (Bottom) Paperclips provide a visual analogy to help with the conceptualization of the denaturation process. Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state , by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base , a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform ), or heat . If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Denatured proteins can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, from loss of solubility to communal aggregation .
Protein folding Protein before and after folding. Results of protein folding. Protein folding is the process by which a protein structure assumes its functional shape or conformation. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil . [ 1 ] Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids . This polypeptide lacks any developed three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the neighboring figure).
Biological engineering Modeling of the spread of disease using Cellular Automata and Nearest Neighbor Interactions Biological engineering , biotechnological engineering or bioengineering (including biological systems engineering ) is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics , chemistry , mathematics , and computer science ) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences and/or the application thereof, using engineering 's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at. In this context, while traditional engineering applies physical and mathematical sciences to analyze, design and manufacture inanimate tools, structures and processes , biological engineering uses primarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study and advance applications of living organisms .
Protein design is the design of new protein molecules, either from scratch or by making calculated variations on a known structure. The use of rational design techniques for proteins is a major aspect of protein engineering . The design of minimalist computer models of proteins ( lattice proteins ), and the secondary structural modification of real proteins, began in the mid-1990s. The de novo design of real proteins became possible shortly afterwards, and in the 21st century it has become a productive field of research. Protein design
Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins . It is a young discipline, with much research taking place into the understanding of protein folding and recognition for protein design principles. There are two general strategies for protein engineering, rational design and directed evolution . These techniques are not mutually exclusive; researchers will often apply both. In the future, more detailed knowledge of protein structure and function , as well as advancements in high-throughput technology , may greatly expand the capabilities of protein engineering. Protein engineering
Expedite | Define Expedite at Dictionary
harnessing - definition of harnessing by the Free Online Dictionary
Matrix Science - Help - Peptide Fragmentation
Galvanised - definition of Galvanised by the Free Online Dictionary
In-situ resource utilization
Foster | Define Foster at Dictionary
Technology acceptance model
Protein–protein interaction screening
Interference (wave propagation)
Learning Vector Quantization