Processes and Calculation VI
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In neuroscience , synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse , between two neurons to change in strength in response to either use or disuse of transmission over synaptic pathways. [ 1 ] Plastic change also results from the alteration of the number of receptors located on a synapse. [ 2 ] There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters. [ 3 ] Synaptic plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses has been found to be dependent upon calcium . [ 2 ] Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain , synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory ( see Hebbian theory ). [ edit ] Historical discoveries
Contrary to common ideas as expressed in this diagram, brain functions are not confined to certain fixed locations. Neuroplasticity (from neural - pertaining to the nerves and/or brain and plastic - moldable or changeable in structure), also known as brain plasticity , refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses which are due to changes in behavior, environment and neural processes, as well as changes resulting from bodily injury. [ 1 ] Neuroplasticity has replaced the formerly-held position that the brain is a physiologically static organ, and explores how - and in which ways - the brain changes throughout life. [ 2 ]
Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task ". [ 1 ] Other in-depth definitions of leadership have also emerged. Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority.
An air handling unit is used for the heating and cooling of air in a central location (click on image for legend).
In respiratory physiology , ventilation (or ventilation rate ) is the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung . It is categorized under the following definitions: [ edit ] Sample values
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.
Phospholipid The left image shows a phospholipid, and the right image shows the chemical makeup. Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers .
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA precursors through action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases . It is an important part of the lipogenesis process, which - together with glycolysis - stands behind creating fats from blood sugar in living organisms.
Fatty acids are a family of molecules classified within the lipid macronutrient class. One of their roles within animal metabolism is energy production in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis.
In chemistry , a multi-component reaction (or MCR ), sometimes referred to as a "Multi-component Assembly Process" (or MCAP), is a chemical reaction where three or more compounds react to form a single product. [ 1 ] By definition, multicomponent reactions are those reactions whereby more than two reactants combine in a sequential manner to give highly selective products that retain majority of the atoms of the starting material. [ edit ] History and Types Multicomponent Reactions
In chemistry , chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to get a product , or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.
Structure of the organic methane molecule: the simplest hydrocarbon compound.
Combinatorial chemistry comprises chemical synthetic methods that make possible to prepare large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process. These compound libraries can be made as mixtures, sets of individual compounds or chemical structures generated in computer. [ 1 ] Strategies that allow identification of useful components of the libraries are also part of combinatorial chemistry.
Comparison of natural and synthetic selection processes for peptide generation.