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Lability refers to something that is constantly undergoing change or something that is likely to undergo change. [ edit ] Chemistry The term is used to describe a relatively unstable and transient chemical species. As a general example, if a molecule exists in a particular conformation for a short life-time, before adopting a lower energy conformation, the former molecular structure is said to have 'high lability' (such as C 25 , a 25-carbon fullerene spheroid). The term is sometimes also used in reference to reactivity - for example, a complex that quickly reaches equilibrium in solution is said to be labile (with respect to that solution). Another common example is the cis effect in organometallic chemistry, which is the labilization of CO ligands in the cis position of octahedral transition metal complexes.
Ownership of property may be private, collective, or common and the property may be objects , land/real estate , or intellectual property . Determining ownership in law involves determining who has certain rights and duties over the property. These rights and duties, sometimes called a 'bundle of rights', can be separated and held by different parties.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Multiplex may refer to: [ edit ] Science and engineering Multiplexing , combining many signals into a single transmission circuit or channel Multiplexer , an electronic device that accomplishes multiplexing Multiplex (assay) , a laboratory procedure in molecular biology [ edit ] Entertainment Multiplex (movie theater) , a large number of screens, also called a megaplex Multiplex (TV) , a group of digital TV or radio channels that are mixed together for broadcast Multiplex (webcomic) , an online comic about the staff of a movie theater
In probability theory and statistics , the Poisson distribution (pronounced [pwasɔ̃] ) is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time and/or space if these events occur with a known average rate and independently of the time since the last event. [ 1 ] The Poisson distribution can also be used for the number of events in other specified intervals such as distance, area or volume. For instance, suppose someone typically gets 4 pieces of mail per day on average.
Mathematical beauty describes the notion that some mathematicians may derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general. They express this pleasure by describing mathematics (or, at least, some aspect of mathematics) as beautiful . Sometimes mathematicians describe mathematics as an art form or, at a minimum, as a creative activity. Comparisons are often made with music and poetry .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Universal may refer to: [ edit ] Companies and organizations
In chemical kinetics , the rate (or velocity) of a reaction mechanism with several steps is often determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step . The experimental rate equation can help to identify which step is rate-determining. In a reaction coordinate , the transition state with the highest energy is the rate-determining step of a given reaction. The concept of the rate-determining step is very important to the optimization and understanding of many chemical processes such as catalysis and combustion . [ edit ] As an example, consider the gas-phase reaction NO 2 + CO → NO + CO 2 .
Repeatability or test-retest reliability [ 1 ] is the variation in measurements taken by a single person or instrument on the same item and under the same conditions. A less-than-perfect test-retest reliability causes test-retest variability . Such variability can be caused by, for example, intra-individual variability and intra-observer variability . A measurement may be said to be repeatable when this variation is smaller than some agreed limit. Test-retest variability is practically used, for example, in medical monitoring of conditions.
Accuracy indicates proximity of measurement results to the true value, precision to the repeatability, or reproducibility of the measurement In the fields of science , engineering , industry , and statistics , the accuracy [ 1 ] of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's actual (true) value . The precision [ 1 ] of a measurement system, also called reproducibility or repeatability , is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results . [ 2 ] Although the two words reproducibility and repeatability can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are deliberately contrasted in the context of the scientific method . A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, or both. For example, if an experiment contains a systematic error , then increasing the sample size generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy.
Reproducibility is the ability of an entire experiment or study to be reproduced, or by someone else working independently. It is one of the main principles of the scientific method . The result values are said to be commensurate if they are obtained (in distinct experimental trials) according to the same reproducible experimental description and procedure. The basic idea can be seen in Aristotle 's dictum that there is no scientific knowledge of the individual, where the word used for individual in Greek had the connotation of the idiosyncratic , or wholly isolated occurrence. Thus all knowledge, all science, necessarily involves the formation of general concepts and the invocation of their corresponding symbols in language (cf. Turner).
Image of galaxy NGC 4945 showing the huge luminosity of the central few star clusters, suggesting there are 10 to 100 supergiant stars in each of these, packed into regions just a few parsecs across. Luminosity is generally understood as a measurement of brightness . Each discipline, however, defines the term differently, depending on what is being measured. In astronomy, luminosity measures the total amount of energy emitted by a star or other astronomical object in SI units of joules per second, which are watts .
Openness may also refers to a very general philosophical position from which some individuals and organizations operate, often highlighted by a decision-making process recognizing communal management by distributed stakeholders (users, producers, or contributors) rather than a centralized authority (owners, experts, boards of directors, etc.). Openness could be a synonym of : Open system : Openness to experience , wiki , direct democracy , open spirituality, respect for all other beings, etc. (fully open) Transparency : openness in a utilitarian view : economical openness, open economic or politic data, etc. (lower degree of openness) [ edit ] References
Interdisciplinarity involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g. a research project). It is about creating something new by crossing boundaries, and thinking across them. It is related to an interdiscipline or an interdisciplinary field, which is an organizational unit that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought , as new needs and professions have emerged. Originally, the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study. Interdisciplinarity involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies - along with their specific perspectives - in the pursuit of a common task.
The mole is a unit of measurement used in chemistry to express amounts of a chemical substance , defined as the amount of any substance that contains as many elementary entities (e.g., atoms , molecules , ions , electrons ) as there are atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon-12 ( 12 C), the isotope of carbon with atomic weight 12. This corresponds to the Avogadro constant , which has a value of 6.022 1 41 7 9(30) × 10 23 elementary entities of the substance. It is one of the base units in the International System of Units , and has the unit symbol mol . [ 1 ] In honor of the unit, chemists often celebrate October 23 (a reference to the 10 23 part of Avogadro's number) as " Mole Day ".