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PGCE - Module 1 (Autumn 2016)

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PGCE related links.

Bloom's Digital Taxonomy Video. Bloom’s Taxonomy. By Patricia Armstrong, Assistant Director, Center for Teaching Background Information | The Original Taxonomy | The Revised Taxonomy | Why Use Bloom’s Taxonomy?

Bloom’s Taxonomy

| Further Information Background Information In 1956, Benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Constructivism - Learning Theories. Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process.

Constructivism - Learning Theories

The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective. Contributors Key Concepts. Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. What is constructivism?

Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning

How does this theory differ from traditional ideas about teaching and learning? What does constructivism have to do with my classroom? Expert interview What is the history of constructivism, and how has it changed over time? What are some critical perspectives? Abraham Maslow and the Theory of Humanistic Learning. Maslow, Abraham H. (1908-1970) Humanistic Theory of Learning 1908 – 1970, Born in Brooklyn NY Ph.D., Univ. of Wisconsin, 1934 Theory Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology.

Abraham Maslow and the Theory of Humanistic Learning

Maslow's theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. Humanism. Throughout recorded history there have been non-religious people who have believed that this life is the only life we have, that the universe is a natural phenomenon with no supernatural side, and that we can live ethical and fulfilling lives on the basis of reason and humanity.

Humanism

They have trusted to the scientific method, evidence, and reason to discover truths about the universe and have placed human welfare and happiness at the centre of their ethical decision making. Today, people who share these beliefs and values are called humanists and this combination of attitudes is called Humanism. Many millions of people in Britain share this way of living and of looking at the world, but many of them have not heard the word ‘humanist’ and don’t realise that it describes what they believe. Defining ‘Humanism’ Roughly speaking, the word humanist has come to mean someone who: Psychology History. Compiled by Lora VanderZwaag (December 1998) Biography Theory Time Line Bibliography Edward Chance Tolman was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to the studies of learning and motivation.

Psychology History

Tolman - Latent Learning. The behaviorists stated that psychology should study actual observable behavior, and that nothing happens between stimulus and response (i.e. no cognitive processes take place).

Tolman - Latent Learning

Edward Tolman (1948) challenged these assumptions by proposing that people and animals are active information processes and not passive learners as behaviorism had suggested. Tolman developed a cognitive view of learning that has become popular in modern psychology. Cognitivism - Learning Theories. The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood.

Cognitivism - Learning Theories

The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Contributors Marriner David Merill (1937 – )Charles Reigeluth (1946 – )Robert Mills Gagné (1916 – 2002)Jerome Bruner (1915-2016)Roger Schank (1946 – ) Key Concepts. Bandura and Observational Learning. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom[1] Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.[2] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Honey and Mumford. Taken from How to be an e-tutor by Dr Richard Mobbs.

Honey and Mumford

Used with permission. Learning styles were developed by Peter Honey and Alan Mumford, based upon the work of Kolb, and they identified four distinct learning styles or preferences: Activist, Theorist; Pragmatist and Reflector. These are the learning approaches that individuals naturally prefer and they recommend that in order to maximise one's own personal learning each learner ought to: understand their learning styleseek out opportunities to learn using that style To understand your particular learning style Honey and Mumford have developed a Learning Style Questionnaire [see further reading] and with this information you will be in a far better position to do three really useful things [quoting P. Learning styles. Neobehaviorism.

Behaviorism. Psychology Concepts. Neobehaviourism is a system of psychology that followed behaviourism with no clear separation between the two, and is predominantly associated with B. F. Skinner. The neobehaviourist movement lasted from approximately 1930 to 1960 and supported the idea that all learning and behavior can be described in terms of conditioning. Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a term coined by B.

F. Behaviorism - Neobehaviorism (1930–1955) - Skinner, Hull, Psychology, and Learning. The second phase of behaviorism, neobehaviorism, was associated with Edward C. Tolman (1886–1959), Clark Hull (1884–1952), and B. F. Behaviorism. By Saul McLeod published 2007, updated 2016 Behaviorism (also called learning theory) refers to a psychological approach which emphasises scientific and objective methods of investigation. The behaviorist movement began in 1913 when John Watson wrote an article entitled 'Psychology as the behaviorist views it', which set out a number of underlying assumptions regarding methodology and behavioral analysis: Basic Assumptions All behavior is learnt from the environment: Behaviorism emphasize the role of environmental factors in influencing behavior, to the near exclusion of innate of inherited factors.

Learning Approaches. Over the years many theories have been developed to examine the processes involved in learning. Most learning theories concentrate on the significance for the way that learning is delivered. There are many different ways of learning both formally and informally: as part of a group, such as in a classroom setting, one-to-one, such as in a mentoring or coaching arrangement, and self-learning. Furthermore people learn differently at different times in their lives and in different circumstances.

Teaching Essentials-essential skills for the 21st century.