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Tragedy of the Commons The concept of the Tragedy of the Commons is extremely important for understanding the degradation of our environment. The concept was clearly expressed for the first time by Garrett Hardin in his now famous article in Science in 1968, which is "widely accepted as a fundamental contribution to ecology, population theory, economics and political science." Hardin: University of California Santa Barbara.
Rio Declaration - Rio Declaration on Environment and Development - United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, and seeking to build upon it, With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people,
habitat.igc.apc.org/agenda21/forest.htm Rio Declasration | Agenda 21 | Alternative Treaties | Information Ecology | Information Habitat Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests Preamble
DATA and STATISTICS SEARCH Search for Data by Topic Search for Data by Country Search for Data by Region or Income GEF Secretariat Project Map : This database provides a list of all Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects, worldwide, from all implementing agencies. Environment Monitors : This publication series, which includes seven countries and numerous environmental themes, is an excellent source of data and statistics on the environment.
Reports Available for Download Other Recent Bank Contributions and Involvement China Water Scarcity AAA Reports Available for Download Back to Top
Chinese Version - 中文 Objective of the AAA Program Design Major Thematic Studies Major Expected Outputs Links to Further Information
Challenges Water is essential for socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Properly managed water resources are a critical component of growth, poverty reduction and equity. The livelihoods of the poorest are critically associated with access to water services.
NGO estimate for 2025, 25 African countries are expected to suffer from water shortage or water stress. Water scarcity involves water stress , water deficits , water shortage and water crisis . The concept of water stress is relatively new. Water stress is the difficulty of obtaining sources of fresh water for use, because of depleting resources.
+ Author Affiliations It is axiomatic that the climate impacts documented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are likely to undermine the realisation of a range of protected human rights. Yet it is only in the recent past that an explicit human rights approach has been brought to bear on the climate change problem. Scholars and human rights bodies have begun to advocate a human rights-centred approach to climate change—an approach which would place the individual at the centre of inquiry, and draw attention to the impact that climate change could have on human rights protection.
Secretary of UNFCCC Yvo de Boer opens the United Nations Climate Change Conference on December 3, 2007, in Bali Indonesia. The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at the Bali International Conference Centre, Nusa Dua , in Bali , Indonesia , between December 3 and December 15, 2007 (though originally planned to end on 14 December). [ 1 ] Representatives from over 180 countries attended, together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. [ 2 ] The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( COP 13 ), the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol ( MOP 3 or CMP 3), together with other subsidiary bodies and a meeting of ministers. [ 2 ] Negotiations on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol dominated the conference.
Connie Hedegaard , former president of the UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen (left chair to Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen on 16 December) [ 1 ] The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference , commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit , was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen , Denmark , between 7 and 18 December. The conference included the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 5th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol .
After the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference on the island Bali in Indonesia in December, 2007 the participating nations adopted the Bali Road Map as a two-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen . The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13) and the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 3 or CMP 3). The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan (BAP) that was adopted by Decision 1/CP.13 of the COP-13 .
United Nations Climate Change Conference, 3-14 December, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, (COP 13 and CMP 3)Bali Climate Change Conference - December 2007 The Bali Road Map The 13th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the 3rd session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol took place in Bali and was hosted by the Government of Indonesia. Also sitting were the twenty-seventh sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the resumed fourth session of the Ad hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). The Bali Climate Change Conference brought together more than 10,000 participants, including representatives of over 180 countries together with observers from intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations and the media. Governments adopted the Bali Road Map, a set of decisions that represented the various tracks that were seen as key to reaching a global climate deal.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) is a scientific intergovernmental body , [ 1 ] [ 2 ] set up at the request of member governments. [ 3 ] It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53. Its mission is to provide comprehensive scientific assessments of current scientific, technical and socio-economic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity, its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, and possible options for adapting to these consequences or mitigating the effects. [ 4 ] It is chaired by Rajendra K. Pachauri .
China's dam projects
Newsmakers via Getty Images The Ozone Hole What was the problem?