Tragedy of the Commons. Tragedy of the Commons The concept of the Tragedy of the Commons is extremely important for understanding the degradation of our environment.
The concept was clearly expressed for the first time by Garrett Hardin in his now famous article in Science in 1968, which is "widely accepted as a fundamental contribution to ecology, population theory, economics and political science. " Hardin: University of California Santa Barbara. Garrett Hardin, the author of Tragedy of the Commons, in 1963. From The Garrett Hardin Society. The Basic Idea If a resource is held in common for use by all, then ultimately that resource will be destroyed. "Held in common" means the resource is owned by no one, or owned by a group, all of whom have access to the resource.
Garrett rephrased his idea in 1985: As a result of discussions carried out during the past decade I now suggest a better wording of the central idea: Under conditions of overpopulation, freedom in an unmanaged commons brings ruin to all. Air. Rio Declaration - Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,
Agenda 21. Forest Principles - from the 1992 Earth Summit. Water for Life. Environment - Data & Statistics. DATA and STATISTICS SEARCH Search for Data by Topic Search for Data by Country Search for Data by Region or Income GEF Secretariat Project Map: This database provides a list of all Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects, worldwide, from all implementing agencies. Environment Monitors: This publication series, which includes seven countries and numerous environmental themes, is an excellent source of data and statistics on the environment.
Environment - Major Reports Related to China AAA. China Water Scarcity AAA Reports Available for Download Other Recent Bank Contributions and Involvement The Bank has been assisting in the water sector, both urban and rural, for many years. This assistance has included sectoral analyses, technical assistance, and lending. Environment - Addressing Water Scarcity in China. Chinese Version- 中文 Objective of the AAA Program Design Major Thematic Studies Major Expected Outputs Links to Further Information For years, water shortage, water pollution and flooding have constrained growth and affected public health and welfare in many parts of China, where per capita availability of natural fresh water is only a quarter of the world average. ’s leadership is well aware of the worsening water shortage and is determined to transform into a water-saving society through policy and institutional reforms.
The overarching objective of the AAA is to assist the Government to develop, adopt, and implement an integrated set of policy and institutional reforms needed to more effectively address China’s water scarcity and build a water scarcity-saving society. Back to Top Program design. Water Resources Management. Water crisis. "In Meatu district, Shinyanga region, Tanzania, water most often comes from open holes dug in the sand of dry riverbeds, and it is invariably contaminated.
" Physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity by country. 2006 Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. It already affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year. More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water. Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. 0221-waterstress-EN.jpg (JPEG Image, 1200×783 pixels) - Scaled (81%) Water for Life. The Increasing Currency and Relevance of Rights-Based Perspectives in the International Negotiations on Climate Change. Lavanya Rajamani* + Author Affiliations. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Secretary of UNFCCCYvo de Boer opens the United Nations Climate Change Conference on December 3, 2007, in Bali Indonesia.
The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference took place at the Bali International Conference Centre, Nusa Dua, in Bali, Indonesia, between December 3 and December 15, 2007 (though originally planned to end on 14 December). Representatives from over 180 countries attended, together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13), the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 3 or CMP 3), together with other subsidiary bodies and a meeting of ministers. Negotiations on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol dominated the conference. See also Further reading Müller, B. 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Connie Hedegaard, former president of the UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen (left chair to Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen on 16 December) The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 7 and 18 December.
The conference included the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 5th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol. Bali Road Map. After the 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference on the island Bali in Indonesia in December, 2007 the participating nations adopted the Bali Road Map as a two-year process to finalizing a binding agreement in 2009 in Copenhagen.
The conference encompassed meetings of several bodies, including the 13th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 13) and the 3rd Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 3 or CMP 3). The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan (BAP) that was adopted by Decision 1/CP.13 of the COP-13. United Nations Climate Change Conference, 3-14 December, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, (COP 13 and CMP 3) IPCC. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments. It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53.
Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP. The IPCC is chaired by Rajendra K. Pachauri. The IPCC does not carry out its own original research, nor does it do the work of monitoring climate or related phenomena itself. The IPCC bases its assessment on the published literature, which includes peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed sources. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Environment. China's dam projects. The List: The World's Lost Environmental Causes. Newsmakers via Getty Images The Ozone Hole What was the problem?
Scientists had warned for years that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used in refrigeration and aerosol sprays, could deplete the ozone layer that surrounds the Earth and absorbs dangerous UV rays. They were right, but it wasnt until the hole over Antarctica was discovered in 1985 that the issue burst into public consciousness as what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) called a megaproblem. What happened to it?
Could it come back? LIU JIN/AFP/Getty Images Acid Rain What was the problem? What happened to it? Could it come back? David Silverman/Getty Images. The environment: Defending science. The Stories You Missed in 2010 - By Joshua E. Keating. The Indonesian Tiger While economists debate whether China or India will dominate the world economy of the 21st century, another rising Asian power is quietly entering the picture.
Relatively unscathed by the global financial crisis, Indonesia's economy was projected to grow at a healthy 6.1 percent clip in 2010 and 6.3 percent next year, one of the fastest rates in Asia (and the world). What's more, its per capita GDP is projected to increase almost 20 percent in the next two years. Since 2009, Indonesia has had Asia's second-best-performing stock market. By invitation: The truth about the environment. "It's Going to Make a Huge Mess" - An Interview with Wallace Broecker.
View a slideshow of Tibet's melting glaciers Wallace Broecker has written some 460 academic papers in his half-century-long career as a geologist.
But this week, everyone seems to remember just one of them: an Aug. 8, 1975, paper in Science titled "Climate Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? " It was the first time anyone used the term "global warming," and his paper's predictions about planetary warming proved remarkably accurate. Mean and Green. Across China's vast northern wilderness, a pattern is repeating itself: Ethnic minority nomads are being systematically and often forcefully relocated into settled communities as part of a process known as "ecological migration.
" The government's ostensible goal is to preserve fragile ecosystems, but often that's a convenient cover for policies that perpetuate inequality among the country's 55 official minority groups. Since its inception in 2005, a project to restore damaged Himalayan grassland in the Sanjiangyuan region has been a major set piece in the Chinese government's attempts to halt widespread environmental devastation.
Greenwashing Hydropower: The Problems with Big Dams.