Rogue antimatter found in thunderclouds. Scientists slow the speed of light. 22 January 2015Last updated at 20:28 ET By Kenneth Macdonald BBC Scotland Science Correspondent Photons were shown to reach the "finishing line" at different times A team of Scottish scientists has made light travel slower than the speed of light.
They sent photons - individual particles of light - through a special mask. It changed the photons' shape - and slowed them to less than light speed. The photons remained travelling at the lower speed even when they returned to free space. The experiment is likely to alter how science looks at light. Matter will be created from light within a year, claim scientists.
Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months.
The theory underpinning the idea was first described 80 years ago by two physicists who later worked on the first atomic bomb. At the time they considered the conversion of light into matter impossible in a laboratory. But in a report published on Sunday, physicists at Imperial College London claim to have cracked the problem using high-powered lasers and other equipment now available to scientists. "We have shown in principle how you can make matter from light," said Steven Rose at Imperial. Speed of light not so constant after all. Light doesn’t always travel at the speed of light.
A new experiment reveals that focusing or manipulating the structure of light pulses reduces their speed, even in vacuum conditions. A paper reporting the research, posted online at arXiv.org and accepted for publication, describes hard experimental evidence that the speed of light, one of the most important constants in physics, should be thought of as a limit rather than an invariable rate for light zipping through a vacuum. Have We Been Interpreting Quantum Mechanics Wrong This Whole Time? For nearly a century, “reality” has been a murky concept.
The laws of quantum physics seem to suggest that particles spend much of their time in a ghostly state, lacking even basic properties such as a definite location and instead existing everywhere and nowhere at once. Only when a particle is measured does it suddenly materialize, appearing to pick its position as if by a roll of the dice. This idea that nature is inherently probabilistic — that particles have no hard properties, only likelihoods, until they are observed — is directly implied by the standard equations of quantum mechanics. Addicting Info – The U.S. Navy Just Announced The End Of Big Oil And No One Noticed. Surf’s up!
The Navy appears to have achieved the Holy Grail of energy independence – turning seawater into fuel: After decades of experiments, U.S. Research reveals the real cause of death for some starburst galaxies. Like hedonistic rock stars that live by the "better to burn out than to fade away" credo, certain galaxies flame out in a blaze of glory.
Astronomers have struggled to grasp why these young "starburst" galaxies—ones that are very rapidly forming new stars from cold molecular hydrogen gas up to 100 times faster than our own Milky Way—would shut down their prodigious star formation to join a category scientists call "red and dead. " Starburst galaxies typically result from the merger or close encounter of two separate galaxies.
Previous research had revealed spouts of gas shooting outward from such galaxies at up to 2 million miles per hour. But astronomers lacked direct evidence of what expelled the gas, the fundamental ingredient for crafting new stars. "To form stars you need dense gas," said Gregory Rudnick, associate professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas. Rudnick and his fellow researchers analyzed 12 merging galaxies as the curtain fell on their star making. Molecules in a fluid not randomly arranged.
FOM PhD researcher Matthijs Panman and his colleagues from the University of Amsterdam have demonstrated that molecules in liquid alcohol are not randomly oriented with respect to each other.
The angle between the oxygen-hydrogen bonds of two neighbouring alcohol molecules is usually about 120 degrees. This discovery refutes the commonly held idea that molecules in a liquid are randomly arranged. The researchers published their work on 12 November 2014 in Physical Review Letters. Engineers efficiently 'mix' light at the nanoscale. The race to make computer components smaller and faster and use less power is pushing the limits of the properties of electrons in a material.
Photonic systems could eventually replace electronic ones, but the fundamentals of computation, mixing two inputs into a single output, currently require too much space and power when done with light. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have engineered a nanowire system that could pave the way for this ability, combining two light waves to produce a third with a different frequency and using an optical cavity to amplify the intensity of the output to a usable level. The study was led by Ritesh Agarwal, professor of materials science and engineering in Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science, and Ming-Liang Ren, a post-doctoral researcher in his lab.
Other members of the Agarwal lab, Wenjing Liu, Carlos O. Aspetti and Liaoxin Sun, contributed to the study. It was published in Nature Communications. Does dark magma lurk in deep Earth? (Phys.org) —A key to understanding Earth's evolution is to look deep into the lower mantle—a region some 400 to 1,800 miles (660 to 2,900 kilometers) below the surface, just above the core.
Data have suggested that deep, hot, fluid magma oceans of melted silicates, a major Earth material, may reside above the core-mantle boundary. Researchers including Carnegie's Alex Goncharov have found, using high-pressure experiments with a proxy material, that the deep Earth materials conduct far less heat under increasing pressure than previously thought. Xkcd. Phys.org - Photos du journal. Half of stars lurk outside galaxies. NASA ESA/Hubble SM4 ERO Team Collisions between galaxies can kick stars out into intergalactic space.
Astronomers have spotted a faint cosmic glow, unseen until now, that may come from stars that float adrift between galaxies. The discovery suggests that as many as half of all stars in the Universe lurk outside galactic boundaries. “There might be people living out there, out in the middle of cold dark space, that don't have a Milky Way,” says Harvey Moseley, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
The stars were probably tossed there when galaxies collided. The findings come from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), which flew briefly into space in 2010 and 2012 aboard a sounding rocket. Dark matter may be massive: Theorists suggest the Standard Model may account for the stuff. The physics community has spent three decades searching for and finding no evidence that dark matter is made of tiny exotic particles. Case Western Reserve University theoretical physicists suggest researchers consider looking for candidates more in the ordinary realm and, well, more massive. Dark matter is unseen matter, that, combined with normal matter, could create the gravity that, among other things, prevents spinning galaxies from flying apart. Physicists calculate that dark matter comprises 27 percent of the universe; normal matter 5 percent.
Instead of WIMPS, weakly interacting massive particles, or axions, which are weakly interacting low-mass particles, dark matter may be made of macroscopic objects, anywhere from a few ounces to the size of a good asteroid, and probably as dense as a neutron star, or the nucleus of an atom, the researchers suggest. The Macros, as Starkman and Jacobs call them, would not only dwarf WIMPS and axions, but differ in an important way. DNA Nanotech: The First Large DNA Crystals. DNA is the stuff of life as we know it, but it is the potential as a programmable material platform that could spawn entire new and revolutionary nanodevices in computer science, microscopy, biology, and more.
Researchers have been working to master the ability to coax DNA molecules to self assemble into the precise shapes and sizes needed in order to fully realize these nanotechnology dreams. A dream that been going on for 20 years now and was just realized. Scientists have tried to design large DNA crystals with precisely prescribed depth and complex features — a design quest just fulfilled as I mentioned above. The team built 32 DNA crystals with precisely-defined depth and an assortment of sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) features. Did a hyper-black hole spawn the Universe?
Fake Art Can Be Detected Because of Nuclear Bombs Detonated in 1945. November 20, 2012 at 2:00 am Chad Upton By Chad Upton | Editor. Physicists create lasers that switch on and off at world record speed. Scientists have designed a record-breaking laser that accelerates the interaction between light and matter by ten times. Complex organic molecule found in interstellar space. 26 September 2014Last updated at 05:56 ET By Michael Eyre Science reporter. Smallest-possible Diamonds Form Ultra-thin Nanothread. Thursday, September 25, 2014. From light into matter, nothing seems to stop quantum teleportation. New species of electrons can lead to better computing. Electrons that break the rules and move perpendicular to the applied electric field could be the key to delivering next generation, low-energy computers, a collaboration of scientists from the University of Manchester and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found.
In a research paper published this week in Science, the collaboration led by MIT's theory professor Leonid Levitov and Manchester's Nobel laureate Sir Andre Geim report a material in which electrons move at a controllable angle to applied fields, similar to sailboats driven diagonally to the wind. The sound of an atom has been captured. Entangled photons make a picture from a paradox. New metamaterial gives light a one-way ticket. Proteins 'ring like bells' Ten things you may not know about stars.
Is information physical? And what does that mean? The illusion of time : past, present and future all exist together - extended. Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram. Accidental Discovery Dramatically Improves Electrical Conductivity - Astronomers reveal contents of mysterious black hole jets. Distant artificial atoms cooperate by sharing light, physicists show. Photons detected without damage. Single electrons make waves. Oldest galaxy known to humanity. Using heat to make magnets. A strange lonely planet found without a star. Light-activated electroactive molecule-based memory microcells. Coldest brown dwarfs blur lines between stars and planets.
New Measurement of Gravitational Constant Comes Up Higher Than Expected - Wired Science. In search for dark matter components, physicists edge closer by watching radiation shifts. 'Groovy' hologram creates strange state of light at visible and invisible wavelengths. Mysterious magnetar boasts one of strongest magnetic fields in Universe. A new light wave. Scientists Make ‘Impossible Material’ … by Accident. Magnetisation controlled at picosecond intervals. Astronomers Find Ancient Star 'Methuselah' Which Appears To Be Older Than The Universe.