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The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain . [ 3 ] The temporal lobes are involved in the retention of visual memories , processing sensory input, comprehending language , storing new memories, emotion, and deriving meaning. [ 4 ] :21 [ edit ] Functions [ edit ] Visual memories The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of explicit long-term memory modulated by the amygdala . [ 4 ] :349
Pons and medulla oblongata The pons ( pronounced /ˈpɔnz/ ) is a structure located on the brain stem , named after the Latin word for "bridge" or the 16th-century Italian anatomist and surgeon Costanzo Varolio (pons Varolii). [ 1 ] It is cranial to the medulla oblongata , caudal to the midbrain , and ventral to the cerebellum . In humans and other bipeds , this means it is above the medulla, below the midbrain, and anterior to the cerebellum. This white matter includes tracts that conduct signals from the cerebrum down to the cerebellum and medulla, and tracts that carry the sensory signals up into the thalamus . [ 2 ]
The parietal lobe is a part of the brain positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe . The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from different modalities , particularly determining spatial sense and navigation. For example, it comprises somatosensory cortex and the dorsal stream of the visual system .
Parahippocampal gyrus The parahippocampal gyrus (Syn. hippocampal gyrus) [ 1 ] is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus . This region plays an important role in memory encoding and retrieval. It has been involved in some cases of hippocampal sclerosis. [ 2 ] Asymmetry has been observed in schizophrenia . [ 3 ] [ edit ] Divisions
The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex . [ 1 ] The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17 , commonly called V1 (visual one). Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus ; the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari .
The limbic system (or paleomammalian brain) is a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. [ 1 ] It is not a separate system, but a collection of structures from the cerebrum , diencephalon , and midbrain , [ 2 ] including the hippocampus , amygdalae , anterior thalamic nuclei , septum , limbic cortex and fornix . It supports a variety of functions, including emotion , behavior , motivation , long-term memory , and olfaction . [ 3 ] It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the formation of memories. [ edit ] Etymology The term "limbic" comes from the Latin limbus , for "border" or "edge".
The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem . In discussions of neurology and similar contexts where no ambiguity will result, it is often referred to as simply the medulla . The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory , vomiting and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic , involuntary functions, such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. The bulb is an archaic term for the medulla oblongata; in modern clinical usage, it sometimes includes the pons as well. The word bulbar therefore refers to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to the muscles thus innervated, those of the tongue, pharynx and larynx. [ edit ] Anatomy
The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals , located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of) the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes . It is separated from the parietal lobe by a space between tissues called the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by a deep fold called the lateral (Sylvian) sulcus. The precentral gyrus, forming the posterior border of the frontal lobe, contains the primary motor cortex , which controls voluntary movements of specific body parts. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex . The dopamine system is associated with reward , attention , short-term memory tasks, planning , and motivation . Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the fore-brain.
The fornix (Latin, "vault" or "arch") is a C-shaped bundle of fibers ( axons ) in the brain , and carries signals from the hippocampus to the hypothalamus . [ edit ] Structure The fibres begin in the hippocampus on each side of the brain (where they are also known as the fimbria ); the separate left and right side are each called the crus of the fornix . The bundles of fibres come together in the midline of the brain, forming the body of the fornix.
Sagittal MRI slice with highlighting indicating location of the cingulate cortex. The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex . It includes the cortex of the cingulate gyrus, which lies immediately above the corpus callosum , and the continuation of this in the cingulate sulcus . The cingulate cortex is usually considered part of the limbic lobe .
The cerebellum (Latin for little brain ) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control . It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language , and in regulating fear and pleasure responses, [ 1 ] but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but it contributes to coordination , precision, and accurate timing. It receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain , and integrates these inputs to fine tune motor activity. [ 2 ] Because of this fine-tuning function, damage to the cerebellum does not cause paralysis , but instead produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium , posture , and motor learning . [ 2 ]
Human brain in the coronal orientation. Amygdalae are shown in dark red. The amygdalae ( pron.: / ə ˈ m ɪ ɡ d ə l iː / ; singular: amygdala ; also corpus amygdaloideum ; Latin , from Greek ἀμυγδαλή , amygdalē , 'almond', 'tonsil', [ 1 ] listed in the Gray's Anatomy textbook as the nucleus amygdalæ ) are almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. [ 2 ] Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory and emotional reactions , the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system . [ 3 ]
© 2000 - 2013 BrightFocus Foundation The image on the left is a side view of the outside of the brain, showing the major lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital) and the brain stem structures (pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellum). The image on the right is a side view showing the location of the limbic system inside the brain. The limbic system consists of a number of structures, including the fornix, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and parts of the thalamus. The hippocampus is one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease.
MRI coronal view of a hippocampus shown in red The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates . It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation .