Loi Sarbanes-Oxley. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Pour les articles homonymes, voir SOX. Lire en ligne Texte en anglais sur Wikisource Aux États-Unis, la loi de 2002 sur la réforme de la comptabilité des sociétés cotées et la protection des investisseurs est une loi fédérale, votée par le congrès, imposant de nouvelles règles sur la comptabilité et la transparence financière. Elle fait suite aux différents scandales financiers révélés dans le pays aux débuts des années 2000, tels ceux d'Enron et de Worldcom. Le texte est couramment appelé « loi Sarbanes-Oxley », du nom de ses promoteurs : le sénateur Paul Sarbanes et le député Mike Oxley. Original jurisdiction.
The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
Alien Tort Statute. Text The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.
Marbury v. Madison. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Marbury v. Madison (Marbury contre Madison) est un arrêt de la Cour suprême des États-Unis, (arrêt 5 U.S. 137) rendu le . C’est à bien des égards le plus important des arrêts rendus par la cour, non pour l’importance de l’affaire jugée, qui est mineure, mais pour les principes qu’il établit. La cour affirme la capacité, pour les tribunaux et en particulier pour elle-même, de juger de la conformité des lois à la constitution et d’écarter, en ne les appliquant pas, celles qui y contreviendraient. Ce principe donne à la cour son pouvoir le plus important, et fait d’elle la première cour constitutionnelle de l’histoire. Le contexte politique et les faits[modifier | modifier le code] John Marshall est alors secrétaire d’État, depuis juin 1800. Règle du précédent. Right to petition in the United States. The right to petition is protected by the First Amendment in the Bill of Rights.
Zero-hour contract. A zero-hour contract (or low-hour contract) is the name given to a type of contract, where the employer purports to have the discretion to vary the employee's working hours, usually anywhere from full-time to "zero hours".
The employer typically asserts that they have no obligation to provide work for the employee. The employee may sign an agreement to be available for work as and when required, so that no particular number of hours or times of work are specified. The employee is expected to be on call and receives compensation only for hours worked. Depending on jurisdiction and conditions of employment, a zero-hour contract may differ from casual work.
Garrow's Law. Garrow's Law is a British period legal drama about the 18th-century lawyer William Garrow.
The series debuted on 1 November 2009 on BBC One and BBC HD. A second series was announced on 7 July 2010 and was broadcast from 14 November 2010. A third series consisting of four episodes was commissioned and was aired from 13 November 2011. Garrow's Law was cancelled after three series in February 2012. Sentence (law) Statutes often specify the range of penalties that may be imposed for various offenses, and sentencing guidelines sometimes regulate what punishment within those ranges can be imposed given a certain set of offense and offender characteristics.
However, in some jurisdictions, prosecutors have great influence over the punishments actually handed down, by virtue of their discretion to decide what offenses to charge the offender with and what facts they will seek to prove or to ask the defendant to stipulate to in a plea agreement. It has been argued that legislators have an incentive to enact tougher sentences than even they would like to see applied to the typical defendant, since they recognize that the blame for an inadequate sentencing range to handle a particular egregious crime would fall upon legislators, but the blame for excessive punishments would fall upon prosecutors. Reasonable doubt. Evidence that is beyond reasonable doubt is the standard of evidence required to validate a criminal conviction in most adversarial legal systems.
Settlement (litigation) In law, a settlement is a resolution between disputing parties about a legal case, reached either before or after court action begins.
The term "settlement" also has other meanings in the context of law. Structured settlements provide for a periodic payment. Crown Proceedings Act 1947. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 (c. 44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that allowed, for the first time, civil actions against the Crown to be brought in the same way as against any other party. The Act also reasserted the common law doctrine of Crown privilege but by making it, for the first time, justiciable paved the way for the development of the modern law of Public Interest Immunity. The Act received the Royal assent on 31 July 1947 but did not fully come into force until 1 January 1948. There remain significant differences between Crown proceedings and claims between private parties, especially as to enforcement of judgments.
Entick v Carrington. Facts John Entick On 11 November 1762, the King's Chief Messenger, Nathan Carrington, and three other King's messengers, James Watson, Thomas Ardran, and Robert Blackmore, broke into the home of the Grub-street writer, John Entick (1703? -1773) in the parish of St Dunstan, Stepney "with force and arms".