Civil forfeiture in the United States. Civil forfeiture in the United States, sometimes called civil judicial forfeiture or occasionally civil seizure, is a controversial legal process in which law enforcement officers take assets from persons suspected of involvement with crime or illegal activity without necessarily charging the owners with wrongdoing.
While civil procedure, as opposed to criminal procedure, generally involves a dispute between two private citizens, civil forfeiture involves a dispute between law enforcement and property such as a pile of cash or a house or a boat, such that the thing is suspected of being involved in a crime. To get back the seized property, owners must prove it was not involved in criminal activity. Sometimes it can mean a threat to seize property as well as the act of seizure itself. History Legal origins Civil forfeiture laws have been traced back to the British Navigation Acts which allowed seizure of ships and goods on suspicion of wrongdoing. ... Prohibition era In camera. In camera (/ɪŋˈkæmᵊrə/; Latin: "in a chamber") is a legal term that means in private. The same meaning is sometimes expressed in the English equivalent: in chambers.
Generally, in-camera describes court cases, parts of it, or process where the public and press are not allowed to observe the procedure or process. In-camera is the opposite of trial in open court where all parties and witnesses testify in a public courtroom, and attorneys publicly present their arguments to the trier of fact. Entire cases may be heard in-camera when, for example, matters of national security are involved. In-camera review by a judge may be used during otherwise open trials—for example, to protect trade secrets or where one party asserts privilege (such as attorney–client privileged communications).
What is the difference between "hard money" and "soft money"? Hard money and soft money are terms that are often used to describe coin money and paper money, respectively.
However, these terms are also used to refer to p olitical contributions in the United States, which can be made directly to a specific candidate (hard money) or indirectly to parties and committees (soft money). The rules governing the two types of contributions differ, and it may be prudent to check these rules in detail before making a contribution. More information on these rules can be found on the Federal Election Commission (FEC) website. Diversity of Citizenship legal definition of Diversity of Citizenship. A phrase used with reference to the jurisdiction of the federal courts which, under the U.S.
Constitution, Art. III, § 2, extends to cases between citizens of different states designating the condition existing when the party on one side of a lawsuit is a citizen of one state and the party on the other side is a citizen of another state, or between a citizen of a state and an alien. The requisite jurisdictional amount must, in addition, be met. Diversity of citizenship is one of the factors that will allow a federal district court to exercise its authority to hear a lawsuit.
This authority is called diversity jurisdiction. PLC - Class Arbitration Waiver (US) Le droit sans l'Etat - Laurent Cohen-Tanugi. Restatements of the Law. In American jurisprudence, the Restatements of the Law are a set of treatises on legal subjects that seek to inform judges and lawyers about general principles of common law.
There are now four series of Restatements, all published by the American Law Institute, an organization of judges, legal academics, and practitioners founded in 1923. Overview Individual Restatement volumes are essentially codifications of case law, which are common law judge-made doctrines that develop gradually over time because of the principle of stare decisis. La procédure dite de discovery. La procédure judiciaire de Discovery, par T.C. – EGE / ULB Alors que la procédure judiciaire de Discovery oblige chaque partie à divulguer toute information susceptible de faciliter l’établissement de preuves, qu’en est-il du secret des affaires ?
Des voix s’élèvent contre cette arme encore méconnue de la guerre économique. Petit tour d’horizon des réponses juridiques et de leur efficacité… Considérée comme élément indispensable à la recherche de preuves, la procédure dite de Discovery est une phase d’investigation ou d’instruction préalable au procès civil ou commercial, quasi systématique dans les pays de Common Law à l’instar des États-Unis. Consideration. Consideration is the concept of legal value in connection with contracts.
It is anything of value promised to another when making a contract. It can take the form of money, physical objects, services, promised actions, abstinence from a future action, and much more. Consideration to create a legally enforceable contract entails a bargained for, legal detriment incurred by the promisee OR a legal benefit to the promisor. Under the notion of "pre-existing duties", if either the promisor or the promisee already had a legal obligation to render such payment, it cannot be seen as consideration in the legal sense.
Non-compete clause. A non-compete clause (often NCC), or covenant not to compete (CNC), is a term used in contract law under which one party (usually an employee) agrees not to enter into or start a similar profession or trade in competition against another party (usually the employer).
Some courts refer to these as "restrictive covenants. " Amicus curiae. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.
Dans le langage juridique américain, un amicus curiae est une personnalité ou un organisme, non directement lié aux protagonistes d'une affaire judiciaire, qui propose au tribunal de lui présenter des informations ou des opinions pouvant l'aider à trancher l'affaire, sous la forme d'un mémoire (un amicus brief), d'un témoignage non sollicité par une des parties, ou d'un document traitant d'un sujet en rapport avec le cas. La décision sur l'opportunité d'admettre le dépôt de ces informations ou de ces opinions est à la discrétion du tribunal.
Plus généralement, intervenir en tant qu'amicus curiae est devenu une possibilité au sein de certaines instances internationales, telles que l'Organisation mondiale du commerce. L'expression amicus curiae vient du latin et signifie littéralement « ami de la cour ». Histoire[modifier | modifier le code]