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Willful blindness. Certiorari. Certiorari (/ˌsɜːrʃⁱəˈrɛəraɪ/, /-ˈrɛəri/, or /-ˈrɑːri/[1][2]), often abbreviated as cert. in the United States, is a writ seeking judicial review.


It is issued by a superior court, directing an inferior court, tribunal, or other public authority to send the record of a proceeding for review. Etymology[edit] Certiorari is the present passive infinitive of the Latin verb certioro, certiorare ("to inform, apprise, show").[2][3] Thus, certiorari translates 'to be informed, apprised or shown'. Historical and modern jurisdictions[edit] Bifurcation (law) In divorce cases some states allow bifurcation, that permits a divorce case to be finalized with certain aspects, such as property, to be dealt with after dissolution.

Bifurcation (law)

Some states allow bifurcation, some don't, and some state statutes do not address the issue. In arbitration bifurcation can be used to get past certain issues, that might otherwise stall negotiations, concluding certain points that are agreed upon, while working on a solution to whatever problem initiated the need for bifurcation. In Federal Court judges have wide discretion to structure trials. Factors evaluated will include congruence of issues, complexity for the jury, and possible prejudice to any of the parties.

American Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 42(b) allows the court to decide issues contained in separate trials. State procedures differ widely. Contingent fee. A contingent fee (in the United States) or conditional fee (in England and Wales) is any fee for services provided where the fee is payable only if there is a favourable result.

Contingent fee

In the law, it is defined as a "fee charged for a lawyer's services only if the lawsuit is successful or is favorably settled out of court.... Contingent fees are usually calculated as a percentage of the client's net recovery. "[1] Comply or explain. Comply or explain is a regulatory approach used in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and other countries in the field of corporate governance and financial supervision.

Comply or explain

Rather than setting out binding laws, government regulators (in the UK, the Financial Reporting Council, in Germany, under the Aktiengesetz) set out a code, which listed companies may either comply with, or if they do not comply, explain publicly why they do not. The UK Corporate Governance Code, the German Corporate Governance Code (or Deutscher Corporate Governance Kodex) and the Dutch Corporate Governance Code 'Code Tabaksblat' (nl:code-Tabaksblat) use this approach in setting minimum standards for companies in their audit committees, remuneration committees and recommendations for how good companies should divide authority on their boards. The purpose of "comply or explain" is to "let the market decide" whether a set of standards is appropriate for individual companies.

Impeachment. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.


L'impeachment (« mise en accusation » ou « procédure de mise en accusation » dans le langage juridique) est le nom de la procédure permettant au pouvoir législatif de destituer un haut fonctionnaire d'un gouvernement. Cette procédure de destitution a pour but de permettre d'engager des poursuites judiciaires pénales à l'encontre des hauts fonctionnaires destitués. Littéralement, le mot signifie « mise en accusation » et on distingue cette mise en accusation du procès proprement dit, l'impeachment trial. Dans son usage courant, le terme désigne la procédure dans son ensemble ou la destitution à son issue.

Cette procédure est proche de la motion de censure. Attention à ne pas confondre impeachment avec le faux-ami français « empêchement ». Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code] Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code] Portail du droit. Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia. Enhanced Damages Law. Enhanced damages means damages awarded at the discretion of the court for patent infringement.

Enhanced Damages Law

It is usually levied in an amount that is up to three times that of compensatory damages. It is generally levied for the egregiousness of the defendant’s conduct, including the willfulness of the infringement. Enhanced damages may be awarded whenever the act or conduct that constitutes a tort is wanton, malicious, or oppressive, the intentional or unintentional nature of the tort alleged being immaterial.

In a civil action founded on a tort, nothing but compensatory damages can be awarded, but the injured party is entitled to full compensation for all the injury sustained. Definition of Willful infringement from the Intellectual Property Glossary of Terms.