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Chancellors of the Exchequer

Clement Attlee. Clement Attlee, the son of a solicitor, was born in Putney in 1883. Educated at Haileybury and University College, Oxford he became a barrister in 1906. Attlee developed an interest in social problems while doing voluntary work at a boy's club in Stepney. Converted to socialism by reading the works of John Ruskin and William Morris, he joined the Independent Labour Party in 1908. After working in a series of temporary jobs, he met Sidney Webb, who arranged for him to teach social administration at the London School of Economics. "I was not appointed on the score of academic qualification, but because I was considered to have a good practical knowledge of social conditions. " In 1914 Attlee joined the British Army and served in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia , where he was badly wounded at El Hanna. After the war Attlee returned to teaching at the London School of Economics. In the 1922 General Election he was elected Labour MP for Limehouse in London.

Aneurin Bevan. Aneurin Bevan, the son of David Bevan, a miner, was born in Tredegar, Monmouthshire on 15th November 1897. Both Aneurin's parents were Nonconformists: his father was a Baptist and his mother a Methodist. David Bevan had been a supporter of the Liberal Party in his youth but was converted to socialism by the writings of Robert Blatchford in the Clarion. One of ten children, Aneurin was unsuccessful at school and his academic performance was so bad that his headmaster made him repeat a year. At the age of thirteen Aneurin left school and began working in the Tytryst Colliery. Although Bevan disliked school he had developed a love of reading. He joined the Tredegar Workmen's Institute Library where he read the works of H. In 1919 Aneurin Bevan won a scholarship to study at the Central Labour College in London. When Bevan returned home in 1921 the Tredegar Iron and Coal Company refused to employ him. In 1926 Bevan was employed as a union official.

In 1931 G.D.H. In April 1933 G.D.H. Winston Churchill. Winston Churchill was born in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, on 30th November, 1874, just seven and a half months after his parents, Randolph Churchill, a Conservative politician and Jennie Jerome, the daughter of Leonard Jerome, a New York businessman, were married. Clive Ponting, the author of Winston Churchill (1994) has pointed out: "Winston Churchill was born into the small, immensely influencial and wealthy circle that still dominated English politics and society. For the whole of his life he remained an aristocrat at heart, deeply devoted to the interests of his family and drawing the majority of his friends and social acquaintances from the elite. From 1876 to 1880 he was brought up surrounded by servants amongst the splendors of the British ascendancy in Ireland. " Winston Churchill was sent to to an expensive preparatory school, St George's at Ascot, just before his eighth birthday in November 1882.

This was followed by a period in a bording school in Brighton. Anthony Eden. Anthony Eden, the son of Sir William Eden, the High Sheriff of Durham, was born at Windlestone Hall, near Bishop Auckland, on 12th June, 1897. Eden, like his father and grandfather, was educated at Eton. He hoped to go to Sandhurst before joining the British Army, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight. Eden served on the Western Front and won the Military Cross at the Battle of the Somme in 1916. After one attack at at Delville Wood, Eden's he battalion suffered 394 casualties, of whom 127 were killed. Nearly all the junior officers were either dead or badly wounded and as a result Eden was promoted to adjutant. In the National Government formed by Ramsay MacDonald in 1931, Eden became Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs (1931-34). Eden disagreed with Neville Chamberlain about the way to deal with fascism.

Eden eventually resigned from the government on the issue of appeasement. Clement Attlee, the leader of the Labour Party, supported Eden in his action against the government. Harold Macmillan. Harold Macmillan, the grandson of Daniel Macmillan (1813-1857), the publisher, was born in 1894. In his memoirs he described his mother as having "high standards and demanding high performances".

He added: "I can truthfully say that I owe everything all through my life to my mother's devotion and support". Macmillan attended Summer Fields School in Oxford. He later admitted that his shyness caused him problems at school and that he returned home with a "perpetual terror of becoming in any way conspicuous". He also suffered from periods of depression: "I was oppressed by some kind of mysterious power which would be sure to get me in the end.

One felt that something unpleasant was more likely to happen than anything pleasant. " In 1906 Macmillan won a scholarship to Eton. Macmillan won a place at Balliol College in 1912. While at university Macmillan became involved in politics. Macmillan left for France on 15th August, 1915. Macmillan took part in the offensive at the Somme.

Alec Douglas-Home. Alec Douglas-Home, the son of the 13th Earl of Home, was born in London on 2nd July, 1903. Educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, he joined the Conservative Party and was elected to the House of Commons in the 1931 General Election. Douglas-Home served as parliamentary private secretary to Neville Chamberlain and was involved in the negotiations with Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini between 1937 and 1939. During the Second World War Douglas-Home spent time in hospital as a result of a spinal operation. He lost his seat in the 1945 General Election but returned to the House of Commons in 1950. The following year, on the death of his father, he became the 14th Earl of Home. In 1951 Winston Churchill appointed him as Minister of State at the Scottish Office.

He held the post for six years before Anthony Eden made him Commonwealth Relations Secretary (1955-1960), Lord President of the Council (1957-1960) and Foreign Secretary (1960-63). Harold Wilson. Harold Wilson, the son of Herbert Wilson (1882–1971) and his wife, Ethel Seddon (1882–1957), was born in Milnsbridge on the outskirts of Huddersfield on 11th March 1916. His father was a chemist and his mother, a former school teacher. (1) Wilson was educated at New Street Elementary School (1920-1927), Royds Hall School (1927-1932) and Bebington Grammar School (1932-1934). One of his teachers, Edgar Whitwarm, later recalled: "To Harold it was effortless. There was never anyone to touch him... Wilson's father had been a supporter of the Liberal Party but after the First World War he changed his allegiance to the Labour Party: "Although never himself poor, the young Harold saw real poverty and the reliance on charity all around him...

His biographer, Roy Jenkins, has pointed out: "Wilson was a remarkably successful pupil, both at Royds Hall and at Wirral grammar school.... Later that year he won a history exhibition at Jesus College. On 1st January 1940, Wilson married Mary Baldwin. Roy Jenkins. Roy Jenkins was born in Abersychan, Monmouthshire, on 11th November, 1920. His father was Arthur Jenkins, president of the South Wales Miners' Federation and the Labour Party MP for Pontypool.

Jenkins was educated at Abersychan Grammar School and Balliol College, Oxford, where he won a first in 1941. During the Second World War Jenkins served in the Royal Artillery and for a while he worked as a codebreaker at Bletchley Park. In 1945 he married Jennifer Morris. Philip Johnston has argued: "Their homoerotic partnership (with Crosland) was broken by two events: the outbreak of war and Roy’s realisation that he preferred women, after meeting his future wife Jennifer, to whom he was married for 58 years.

He would later become something of a Lothario, boasting many affairs, including with the wives of two of his closest friends. " A member of the Labour Party, Jenkins was elected to the House of Commons in 1948. The Conservative Party won the 1970 election. Barbara Castle. Barbara Betts, the daughter of a tax inspector, was born in Bradford in 1910. Her father was a member of the Independent Labour Party and she was converted to socialism at an early age. Castle was educated at Bradford Girls' Grammar School.

Barbara wrote that "the girl's parents were all rich, and the dainty frocks that the pupils wore did credit to the school's reputation of beauty and culture throughout. " Barbara became friends with Mary Hepworth, a cash-desk girl who shared her committment to socialism. "Barbara had some sort of an intellectual battle with her father, who never felt that she did her brains justice. I think he expected too much from her at her age. " In 1929 Barbara and Mary attended the Independent Labour Party conference in Derby. One of her best friends at Oxford University was Olive Shapley. In 1932 Barbara began an affair with William Mellor. William Mellor now established the Town and County Councillor, a journal for Labour supporters in local government.

Edward Heath. He took office on June 19, 1970, and declared from the pavement outside 10 Downing Street that “to govern is to serve”. Partly by ill-chance it was not a government of strong ministers. Iain Macleod died after a month, and left a gap which not only muted the administration’s persuasiveness but also deprived it of effective macro-economic control. Macleod’s successor as Chancellor, Anthony Barber, always seemed more interested in the details of taxation reform than in the direction of the economy. Maudling as Home Secretary had personal troubles, which prevented his authority being as great as his political sagacity, and had eventually to resign from office in July 1972. James Callaghan.

James Callaghan was born in Portsmouth in 1912. After being educated at Portsmouth Northern School, he joined the staff of the Inland Revenue. In 1931 he joined the Labour Party and began work as a trade union official. Callaghan was selected as the parliamentary candidate for South Cardiff and was elected to the House of Commons in the 1945 General Election and held minor posts in the government of Clement Attlee. When Hugh Gaitskell died in 1963, Callaghan was one of the main contenders for the party leadership. Callaghan, who represented the right-wing of the party, was defeated by Harold Wilson. When the Labour Party was elected in the 1964 General Election, Callaghan became the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In this post he created a great deal of controversy by introducing corporation tax and selective employment tax.

Callaghan resigned from office but was recalled as Home Secretary in 1968. Wilson appointed Callaghan as his foreign secretary. Denis Healey. Denis Healey, the son of an engineer, was born in Mottingham, on 30th August, 1917. Five years later his family moved to Keighley. When Healey was eight years old he won a scholarship to Bradford Grammar School. Influenced by the poetry of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon from the First World War, Healey became a pacifist and in 1935 resigned from the school's Officer's training Corps.

In 1936 Healey entered Balliol College, Oxford. While at university he became active in politics. He became concerned about the emergence of Adolf Hitler. He rejected his earlier pacifism and joined the Communist Party. Healey later explained in his autobiography, The Time of My Life, why he took this decision: "For the young in those days, politics was a world of simple choices. On the outbreak of the Second World War joined the British Army and he served with the Royal Engineers in North Africa, Sicily and Italy. Harold Wilson appointed Healey as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Margaret Thatcher. Margaret Roberts, the daughter of a grocer, Alfred Roberts, was born in Grantham, Lincolnshire, on 13th October, 1925. She was educated at the Kesteven & Grantham Girls' School, and at 17 she won a place to study chemistry at Somerville College, where she was tutored by the future Nobel prizewinner Dorothy Hodgkin.

The Conservative Party was defeated in the 1964 General Election and Harold Wilson became the new prime minister. Edward Heath, the new leader of the Conservatives, appointed her as Opposition Spokesman on Pensions and National Insurance. She later held opposition posts on Housing (October 1965), Treasury (April 1966), Fuel and Power (October 1967), Transport (November, 1968) and Education (October, 1969).

Following the Conservative victory in the 1970 General Election, Thatcher became Secretary of State for Education and Science. In October 1970 she created great controversy by bringing an end to free school milk for children over seven and increasing school meal charges. John Major. Major was succeeded by William Hague as Leader of the Conservative Party in June 1997. He went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. In 1999, a BBC poll of 20th-century British prime ministers ranked him 17th.[2] Early life and education[edit] Major was born in 29 March 1943 at St Helier Hospital and Queen Mary's Hospital for Children in Sutton, Surrey, the son of Gwen Major (née Coates, 1905–1970) and former music hall performer Tom Major-Ball, who was sixty-three years old when Major was born.[3] He was christened "John Roy Major" but only "John Major" was recorded on his birth certificate.

He used his middle name until the early-1980s.[4] He attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954, he attended Rutlish School, a grammar school in the London Borough of Merton. In 1955, with his father's garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton. Early political career[edit] In Cabinet[edit] Prime Minister[edit]

Tony Blair. In May 1997, the Labour Party won a landslide general election victory, the largest in its history, allowing Blair, at 43 years old, to become the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September 1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public approval rating, after his public response to the death of Diana, Princess of Wales.[5][6][7] The Labour Party went on to win two more elections under his leadership: in 2001, in which it won another landslide victory, and in 2005, with a reduced majority. In the first years of the New Labour government, Blair's government introduced the National Minimum Wage Act, Human Rights Act, and Freedom of Information Act. Blair's government also devolved power, establishing the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly.

In Northern Ireland, Blair was involved in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. Earliest years Blair's first relocation was when he was 19 months old. Education Leadership roles.