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BBC Bitesize - Higher History - Russia (1881-1921) Russian industrialisation. The webserver at Alpha History tells us you’re using an adblocking tool, plug-in or browser extension on your computer or network.

Russian industrialisation

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To access the Alpha History website, please complete one of the following steps: * Disable or deactivate your adblocking software, tool or plug-in. * Whitelist our top level domain ( in your adblocking software. Thank you for your understanding. Have a nice day! Alexander III. Alexander III unexpectedly came to the throne in 1881 on the assassination of Alexander II.

Alexander III

Alexander III was under no illusion that he could suffer the same fate as his father. He introduced repression of opponents as the corner stone of his reign. Alexander had three main beliefs: George Plekhanov. George Plekhanov was born in Tambov, Russia on 26th November 1857.

George Plekhanov

As a young man he joined the Land and Liberty and was the party's main speaker at the famous Kazan Square rally in St Petersburg on 6th December, 1876. In October, 1879, Land and Liberty split into two factions. The majority of members, who favoured a policy of terrorism, established the People's Will. Plekhanov became the leader of the Black Repartition group that rejected terrorism and supported a socialist propaganda campaign among workers and peasants. Forced into exile in January, 1880, he became Russia's leading Marxist and in 1883 joined with Pavel Axelrod to form the Liberation of Labour group. Narodniks. The Narodniks (Russian: народники, pronounced [nɐˈrodʲnʲɪkʲɪ]) were a socially conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against the Tsardom.


Their ideology was known as Narodnichestvo (народничество), from the Russian народ, narod, "people, folk", so it is sometimes translated as "peopleism" or more commonly "populism". A common slogan among the Narodniks was "хождение в народ", khozhdeniye v narod, "going to the people".[1] Though their movement achieved little in its own time, the Narodniks were in many ways the intellectual and political forebears of the socialist revolutionaries who went on to greatly influence Russian history in the 20th century.

History[edit] The Narodnik position was mostly held by intellectuals who read the works of Alexander Herzen (1812–1870) and of Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (1828–1889), whose convictions were refined by Nikolay Mikhaylovsky (1842–1904). Failure[edit] Alexander III. The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal?

Orlando Figes' website. An introduction to Russia. The webserver at Alpha History has detected an adblocking tool, plug-in or browser extension on your computer or network.

An introduction to Russia

Alpha History provides free textbook-quality content for teachers and students worldwide. We rely on advertising revenue to host, maintain, improve and expand our website. It is a condition of use that visitors to Alpha History’s website do not use tools or software that prevents advertisements from loading (see terms of use, 1.4). To access the Alpha History website, please undertake one of the following steps: * Disable or deactivate your adblocking software, tool or plug-in. * Whitelist our top level domain ( in your adblocking software. Thank you for your understanding. Tsarist government. Russian society. Enforcing Russian autocracy. The Power of Orthodox Church. Historical Association Podcasts.

Spartacus Russia links. Reform and reaction in Russia. Europe (1848-1871): "Reform" in Russia (1855-1881) Summary The Russian defeat in the Crimean War was a wake-up call to the autocracy.

Europe (1848-1871): "Reform" in Russia (1855-1881)

While St. Petersburg could boast that it commanded the largest army in Europe (in numbers), poor roads, antiquated weapons, and low morale prohibited the effective use of that awesome potential power. The defeat proved to the autocracy in charge that Russia had fallen dangerously behind its Western neighbors, making it vulnerable to future attack and invasion. Why had Russia lost? This "emancipation", however, was barely related to what the peasants themselves were expecting. Nevertheless, for autocratic Russia under the Romanov dynasty, this was unprecedented reform. 1. Teased by these halfhearted reforms from above, dissatisfied peasants, intellectuals, professionals, and even some liberal gentry sought greater freedom through recourse to violent revolutionary movements to overthrow the Tsarist government.

Europe (1848-1871): The Crimean War (1854-1855) Summary For centuries, one central goal of Russian foreign policy was to obtain a warm water port in the south--namely, at the Bosporus Straits and the Strait of the Dardanelles, the small waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.

Europe (1848-1871): The Crimean War (1854-1855)

In 1854, the decaying Ottoman Empire controlled that essential waterway and Russia sought increased power in this region. In 1853, St.