The Crusades: A Complete History. Biography - king of Jerusalem. Biography - king of Jerusalem. Baldwin IIking of Jerusalem Also known as Baldwin of BourcqBaldwin of Le BourcqBaudouin du Bourcq died August 1131 Jerusalem, Israel Baldwin II, byname Baldwin of Bourcq, French Baudouin du Bourcq (died August 1131, Jerusalem), count of Edessa (1100–18), king of Jerusalem (1118–31), and Crusade leader whose support of the religious-military orders founded during his reign enabled him to expand his kingdom and to withstand Muslim attacks.
Biography - king of Jerusalem. Baldwin Iking of Jerusalem Also known as Baldwin of BoulogneBaudouin de Boulogne born died April 2, 1118 Al-ʿArīsh, Egypt Baldwin I, byname Baldwin of Boulogne, French Baudouin de Boulogne (born 1058?
Son of Eustace II, count of Boulogne, and Ida d’Ardenne, Baldwin was the younger brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, whom he accompanied on the First Crusade (1096–99). In July 1100 his brother Godfrey died in Jerusalem, and Baldwin was summoned by the nobles to succeed him as Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Defender of the Holy Sepulchre). Once he had consolidated his strength at home, Baldwin seized the coastal cities of Arsuf (Tel Arshaf, Israel) and Caesarea (H̱orbat Qesari, Israel) in 1101; by 1112 he had captured all the coastal cities except Ascalon and Tyre. In 1113 Baldwin forced his wife to enter a convent and married Adelaide of Saona, countess dowager of Sicily. Al-Sulami: Extracts from Kitab al-Jihad. A Translation of Extracts from the Kitab al-Jihadof 'Ali ibn Tahir Al-Sulami (d. 1106) by Niall Christie (The Arabic text, with a French translation, may be found in Emmanuel Sivan, "Un traité Damasquin du début du XIIe siècle", Journal Asiatique 254 (1966), pp. 206-22) [f. 173 b] In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
The Messenger of God (God bless him) said: "The caliphate concerns the Quraysh, authority (concerns) the ansar, the call to Islam (concerns) the Abyssinians, and after that the hijra and jihad concern the Muslims. " In his saying that after that the jihad concerns the Muslims is a visible proof it concerns all Muslims. [f. 174 a] As for consensus, after (the death of) the Prophet (God bless him) the four caliphs and all the companions (of the Prophet) agreed on the jihad's being incumbent on all. I said: "What I have mentioned showed that if a group was needed to carry out an expedition, [f. 175 a] our duty was incumbent on all of them. . © Niall Christie 2001. Medieval Sourcebook: Urban II: Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095, according to Fulcherof Chartres. Back to Medieval Sourcebook | ORB Main Page | Links to Other Medieval Sites |
Christianity. Oikoumene. What You Need to Know About the Crusades. Definition of a "Crusade" The medieval "Crusade" was a holy war.
For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, it had to be sanctioned by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies of Christendom. Initially, only those expeditions to the Holy Land (Jerusalem and associated territory) were considered Crusades. More recently, historians have also recognized campaigns against heretics, pagans and Muslims in Europe as Crusades. How the Crusades Began For centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims, but they tolerated Christian pilgrims because they helped the economy. The First Crusade: A simple Introduction. A Crusader After the Normans had settled in France and conquered England, both France and England, and also the Holy Roman Empire, were stronger than they had been since the time of Charlemagne.
Their kings and queens began to think, as he had, of reconquering the whole Mediterranean and recreating the Roman Empire. In particular, they wanted to take Jerusalem, the city of Jesus Christ, away from the Islamic Fatimids who were ruling it. Clermont In 1095 AD Pope Urban made a great speech at Clermont (CLAIRE-mant) in southern France, where he urged the people to take up weapons and go fight to free Jerusalem from the rule of the Fatimids. People were so enthusiastic that several groups set off for Jerusalem before the main group was organized. First Crusade. During the crusade, knights and peasants from many nations of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea, first to Constantinople and then on towards Jerusalem.
Spread of Islam, The - Oxford Islamic Studies Online. WTH THE DEATH of Muhammad, the Muslim community found itself without a leader.
While as the ‘seal of the prophets’ he could have no successor, as a political guide Muhammad was succeeded by the so-called al Khulafa' al Rashidun, the four ‘rightly-guided caliphs’ who were chosen from his most loyal companions. It was during the leadership of these caliphs ( 632 – 56 ), and particularly under the second caliph and great statesman ‘Umar ibn al Khattab (634–44), that the conquest of territories outside Arabia began.
The Crusades. The Crusades In 1095 an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II met at Clermont, France. Crusades (History.com)